"United City Warrior Society"

Native American / First Nation

History Page






Diese Homepage dient zur Information und Aufklärung und soll zum Nachdenken anregen. 500 Jahre Unrecht sind genug. Es wird Zeit das die amerikanischen Ureinwohner zu ihrem Recht kommen.


 Hau Kola




This website serves to inform and educate and is thought-provoking. 500 years are wrong enough. It is time that the Native Americans have their rights.


the eagles bed by Native American Indian on Grooveshark
Native American / First Nation History Page "Austria"
Native American / First Nation History Page "Austria"

We support the American Indian Movement"

Christian Hauser, Founder & President United City Warrior Society
Christian Hauser, Founder & President United City Warrior Society
Diese Seite ist der amerikanischen Urbevölkerung gewidmet. In großem Respekt vor ihrer Kultur und in Ehrfurcht vor dem Leid, was sie erfuhren, möchte ich meinen Teil dazu beitragen, dass sie niemals vergessen werden auf dieser Welt.

Ich dulde hier keine selbsternannten Medizinmänner oder Indianerkopierer. Meine Beiträge sind von mir sorgfältig recherchiert und dienen ausschließlich der Information. Der Respekt vor der Kultur und den Ritualen der Native American People steht im Vordergrund.

Obwohl ich mich hier haupts√§chlich mit den Ureinwohnern Nordamerikas auseinandersetze, m√∂chte ich festhalten, dass mir selbstverst√§ndlich bewu√üt ist das den Ureinwohnern S√ľdamerikas und Canadas genauso Unrecht geschehen ist und noch immer geschieht.
Ich m√∂chte die Native Americans hier nur als Beispiel f√ľr 500 Jahre Unrecht auf dem ganzen Koninent anf√ľhren.
Du m√∂chtest uns √ľnterst√ľtzen als Member oder Supporter?
Schicke mir eine Nachricht.
This page is dedicated to the Native Americans  . With great respect for their culture and in awe of the suffering, what they learned, I want to do my part, that they'll never forget in this world.

I suffer here no self-proclaimed medicine men or Indians copier. My posts are of my carefully researched and are for information only. Of respect for the culture and rituals of the Native American People in the foreground.

Although I am here primarily grappling with the Native Americans, I would hold that to me is of course aware that the natives of South America and Canada just been wronged and is still happening.
I would just mention the Native Americans as an example for 500 years on the wrong continent.
You want to support us as a member or supporter?
Leave me a message.

The Sacred Thread Mandala

The Sacred Thread Mandala is a representation of my personal spiritual iconography which is mainly a combination of the Old Religion of the Celts and Native American beliefs. Both are earth based, placing a high importance on being in tune with and respectful of nature. Both include female deities along with male gods. Both recognize a One Source, a Universal Spirit that is the energy behind everything.The upper left corner is Father Sky. He is spreading a rainbow over all of life, signifying the vision that Black Elk experienced, that the Native American ways would be revived by peoples of all colors someday, and that this would restore our planet to balance and health.The upper right corner is the Weaver. She is the Creatrix, weaving the fabric of Life. The thread connects all of life. This shows how we all need each other. Everything we do has an effect upon the world. There is no Beginning and no End.The lower right corner is the Lord of the Forest. He is the protector of animals. He is the also the Sun King and the cycle of the seasons is symbolized by his rebirth, growth, mating with the Goddess, and death. I chose to portray him as a Buddhist monk in order to bring more of the Eastern spirit into the art.The lower left corner shows the Lady of the Lake. She is also Earth Mother, Gaia, and the Moon Goddess. In the Old Religion, she was the high priestess who was believed to be the incarnation of the Goddess. The Goddess spoke through her, and she guided the people and made prophesies.The center of my painting is a spiral light that represents the One Light. This Great Spirit has many names in the world's religions, and I believe it is the same by whatever name.Around the Light are the faces of the Goddess - the Maiden, Mother, and Crone. We have again a metaphor for the phases of life, the ongoing cycle. Each has its beauty and its power. The energy of the phases of the moon corresponds to each face of the Goddess. The New Moon is the Maiden. The Full Moon is the Mother. The Waning Moon is the Crone.Each of the 4 directions has its corresponding color, season, time of day, moon phase, power animals, and many other aspects. The colors are different for the Celts and the Native Americans. I have used the Celtic colors. These directions are called upon when there is a spiritual ritual to raise power and receive protection and guidance.Although the spiritual world has been divided in this way, the core belief is that All is One. I believe that the Source is the One Light, what some refer to as God. Every Goddess, power animal, deity, crystal, star, moon, sun, and person is an expression of the Divine. Everything has its purpose and can help us in its special way. We use all of the Creator's gifts to grow and heal.

Mandala Center
Mandala Center
Mandala Dolphin
Mandala Dolphin
Mandala Eagle
Mandala Eagle
Mandala Father Sky
Mandala Father Sky
Mandala Lady Lake
Mandala Lady Lake
Mandala Lion
Mandala Lion
Mandala Lord Forrest
Mandala Lord Forrest
Mandala Weaver
Mandala Weaver
Mandala Wolf
Mandala Wolf

Coyote and Wishpoosh

from the Chinook tribe

retold by

S.E. Schlosser 

Now Wishpoosh the monster beaver lived in the beautiful Lake Cle-el-lum which was full of fish. Every day, the animal people would come to the lake, wanting to catch some fish, but Wishpoosh the giant beaver drove them away with many threats and great splashing. If they refused to leave, Wishpoosh would kill the animal people by dragging them deep into the lake so that they drowned.

Coyote was very upset at Wishpoosh for the way he treated the animal people. Coyote decided that he would kill the monster beaver and so he went to Lake Cle-el-lum with his spear tied to his wrist and started to fish. As soon as Wishpoosh saw this upstart person invading his territory, the giant beaver attacked. Coyote threw the spear and it pierced the beaver. Immediately, Wishpoosh dove to the bottom of the lake, dragging Coyote with him.

Well, Coyote and Wishpoosh wrestled and tugged and fought each other at the bottom of the lake until the sides gave way and all the water rushed out, pouring out over the mountains and through the canyons until it collected in Kittitas Valley and formed another, larger lake. Coyote and Wishpoosh burst forth into the new lake, shouting and wrestling and fighting each other with renewed vigor until the second lake gave way and the water rushed out, joining in with the waters of several rivers to form a massive lake at Toppenish.

Wishpoosh the monster beaver would not give up the fight. He bit and clawed at Coyote and tried to drown him in the massive lake. Coyote fought back fiercely, and at last the massive lake gave way, the water roared down into the meeting place of the Columbia, the Yakima, and the Snake, where it dammed up into a lake so huge none has ever seen its like before or since.

Coyote and Wishpoosh dragged at each other, pulling and tugging and ripping and biting until the dam gave way and a huge wave of water swept down the Columbia River towards the sea. Coyote and Wishpoosh were tumbled over and over again as they were swept down river in the mighty wave of water. Coyote grabbed bushes and rocks and trees, trying to pull himself out of the massive wave. By these efforts was the Columbia Gorge was formed. But Coyote could not pull himself out of the great wave and so he tumbled after Wishpoosh, all the way to the bitter waters at the mouth of the river.

Wishpoosh was furious. He was determined to beat this upstart Coyote who had driven him from his beautiful lake. The giant beaver swept all the salmon before him and ate them in one gulp to increase his strength. Then he swam out to sea with Coyote in pursuit. The monster beaver threw his great arms around a whale and swallowed it whole.

Coyote was frightened by this demonstration of the monster beaver's strength. But he was the most cunning of all the animals, and he came up with a plan. Turning himself into a tree branch, Coyote drifted among the fish until Wishpoosh swallowed him. Returning to his natural form, Coyote took a knife and cut the sinews inside the giant beaver. Wishpoosh gave a great cry and then perished.

Coyote was tired after his long fight with the monster beaver. He called to his friend Muskrat, who helped drag the body of Wishpoosh to shore. Coyote and Muskrat cut up the giant beaver and threw the pieces up over the land, thus creating the tribes of men. The Nez Perce were created from the head of the giant beaver, to make them great in council. The Cayuses were created from the massive arms of Wishpoosh, in order that they might be strong and powerful with the war club and the bow. From the beaver's ribs, Coyote made the Yakimas and from the belly the Chinooks. To make the Klickitats, Coyote used the beaver's legs, so that they would become famous for their skill in running. With the leftover skin and blood, he made the Snake River Indians who thrived on war and blood.

Thus were the tribes created, and Coyote returned up the mighty Columbia River to rest from his efforts. But in his weariness, Coyote did not notice that the coastal tribes had been created without mouths. The god Ecahni happened along just then and fixed the problem by assembling all of the coastal tribes and cutting mouths for them. Some he made too large and some he made crooked, just as a joke. This is why the mouths of the coastal tribes are not quite perfect.

Attack of the Mammoth

A British Columbia Myth

from Kaska First Nation

retold by

S.E. Schlosser

A man and his family were constantly on the move, hunting for beaver. They traveled from lake to lake, stream to stream, never staying any place long enough for it to become a home. The woman sometimes silently wished that they would find a village and settle down somewhere with their little baby, but her husband was restless, and so they kept moving.


One evening, after setting up camp on a large lake, the young mother went out to net some beaver, carrying her baby upon her back. When she had a toboggan full of beaver meat, she started back to camp. As she walked through the darkening evening, she heard the thump-thump-thump of mighty footsteps coming from somewhere behind her. She stopped; her heart pounding. She was being followed by something very large. Her hands trembled as she thought of the meat she was dragging behind her. The creature must have smelled the meat and was stalking the smell.


Afraid to turn around and alert the beast, she bent over as if to pick something off the snowy path and glanced quickly past her legs. Striding boldly through the snowy landscape was a tall, barrel-shaped, long-haired creature with huge tusks and a very long trunk. It was a tix - a mammoth - and it looked hungry. She straightened quickly and hurriedly threw the meat into the snow. Then she ran as fast as she could back to camp, dragging the toboggan behind her. Her little baby cried out fearfully, frightened by all the jostling, but she did not stop to comfort him until she was safe inside their shelter.


She told her husband at once about the terrible mammoth that had stalked her and taken the beaver meat. Her husband shook his head and told her she was dreaming. Everyone knew that the mammoth had all died away. Then he light-heartedly accused her of giving the meat away to a handsome sweetheart. She denied it resentfully, knowing that he really believed that she had carelessly overturned the toboggan and had let the meat sink beneath the icy waters of the lake.


After her husband went to set more beaver nets, she prepared the evening meal. While it was cooking over the fire, she walked all around the camp, making sure that there was an escape route through the willow-brush just in case the hungry mammoth attacked them in the night.


The husband and wife lay down to sleep next to the fire after they finished the evening meal. The husband chuckled when he saw that his wife kept her moccasins on and the baby clutched in her arms. "Expecting the mammoth to attack us?" he asked jovially. She nodded, and he laughed aloud at her. Soon he was asleep, but the woman lay awake for a long time, listening.


The wife was awakened from a light doze around midnight by the harsh sounds of the mammoth approaching. "Husband," she shouted, shaking him. He opened his eyes grumpily and demanded an explanation. She tried to tell him that the hungry mammoth was coming to eat them, but he told her she was having a nightmare and would not listen. The wife begged and pleaded and tried to drag him away with her, but he resisted and finally shouted at her to begone if she was afraid. In despair, she clutched her little child to her chest and ran away from the camp.


As she fled, she heard the harsh roar of the giant creature and the sudden shout of her husband as he came face to face with the creature. Then there was silence, and the woman knew her husband was dead. Weeping, she fled with her child, seeking a village that she had heard was nearby. Sometime in the early hours of the morning, she heard the thump-thump-thump of the creature's massive feet stomping through the snow-fields, following her trail. Occasionally, it made a wailing sound like that of a baby crying.


The woman kept jogging along, comforting her little baby as best she could. As light dawned, she saw a camp full of people who were living on the shores of an island on the lake. She crossed the icy expanse as quickly as possible and warned the people of the fierce mammoth that had killed her husband. The warriors quickly went out onto the ice and made many holes around the edges of their village, weakening the ice so that the mammoth would fall through and drown.


As evening approached, the people saw the mammoth coming toward them across the ice. When it neared their camp on the island, the creature plunged through the weakened ice. Everyone cheered, thinking that the animal had drowned. Then its large hairy head emerged out of the water and it shook its long tusks and bellowed in rage. The mammoth started walking along the bottom of the lake, brushing aside the ice with his large tusks.


The people panicked. They screamed and ran in circles, and some of them stood frozen in place, staring as the mammoth emerged from the ice and walked up onto the banks of the island. The wife of the eaten man fled with her baby, urging as many of her new-found friends as she could reach, to flee with her. But many remained behind, paralyzed with fear.


Then a boy emerged from one of the shelters, curious to know what was causing everyone to scream in fear. He wore the bladder of a moose over his head, covering his hair so that he looked bald. He was a strange lad, and was shunned by the locals. Only his grandmother knew that he was a mighty shaman with magic trousers and magic arrows that could kill any living beast.


When the boy saw the hungry, angry mammoth, he called out to his grandmother to fetch the magic trousers and the magic arrows. Donning his clothing, he shook his head until the bladder burst and his long hair fell down to his waist. Then he took his magic bow and arrows and leapt in front of the frightened people and began peppering the beast with arrows, first from one side and then the other. The mammoth roared and weaved and tried to attack the boy, but the shaman's magic was powerful, and soon the beast lay dead upon the ground.


Then those who fled from the mammoth returned to the camp, led by the poor widow and her baby. The people whose lives had been saved by the bladder-headed boy gave a cheer and gathered in excitement around the boy. In gratitude, the people made the shaman their chief and offered him two beautiful girls to be his wives, though he accepted only one of them. The widow and her baby were welcomed into the tribe, and a few months later she married a brave warrior who became close friends with the shaman-become-chief.


And from that day to this, the people have always had chiefs to lead them, and no mammoths have troubled them again.

The Camrades

Mashtinna, the Rabbit, was a handsome young man, and, moreover, of a kind disposition. One day, when he was hunting, he heard a child crying bitterly, and made all haste in the direction of the sound.

On the further side of the wood he found one tormenting a baby boy with whips and pinches, laughing heartily meanwhile and humming a mother's lullaby.

"What do you mean by abusing this innocent child?" demanded the Rabbit; but the other showed a smiling face and replied pleasantly: "You do not know what you are talking about! The child is fretful, and I am merely trying to quiet him."

Mashtinna was not deceived, for he had guessed that this was Double-Face, who delights in teasing the helpless ones.

"Give the boy to me!" he insisted; so that Double-Face became angry, and showed the other side of his face, which was black and scowling.

"The boy is mine," he declared, "and if you say another word I shall treat you as I have treated him!"

Upon this, Mashtinna fitted an arrow to the string, and shot the wicked one through the heart. He then took the child on his arm and followed the trail to a small and poor teepee. There lived an old man and his wife, both of them blind and nearly helpless, for all of their children and grandchildren, even to the smallest and last, had been lured away by wicked Double-Face.

"Ho, grandfather, grandmother! Have brought you back the child!" exclaimed the Rabbit, as he stood in the doorway.

But the poor, blind old people had so often been deceived by that heartless Double-Face that they no longer believed anything; therefore they both cried out: "You liar! We don't believe a word you say! Get away with you, do!"

Since they refused to take the child, and it was now almost night, the kind-hearted young man wrapped the boy in his own blanket and lay down with him to sleep.

The next morning, when he awoke, he found to his surprise that the child had grown up during the night and was now a handsome young man, so much like him that they might have been twin brothers.

"My friend, we are now comrades for life!" exclaimed the strange youth. "We shall each go different ways in the world, doing all the good we can; but if either is ever in need of help let him call upon the other and he will come instantly to his aid!"

The other agreed, and they set out in opposite directions. Not long after, the Rabbit heard a loud groaning and crying as of some person in great pain. When he reached the spot, he found a man with his body wedged tightly in the forks of a tree, which the wind swayed to and fro. He could not by any means get away, and was in great misery.

"I will take your place, brother!" exclaimed the generous young man, upon which the tree immediately parted, and the tree-bound was free. Mashtinna took his place and the tree closed upon him like a vise and pinched him severely.

The pain was worse than he had supposed, but he bore it as long as he could without crying out. Sweat beaded his forehead and his veins swelled to bursting; at last he could endure it no longer and called loudly upon his comrade to help him. At once the young man appeared and struck the tree so that it parted and Mashtinna was free.

He kept on his journey until he spied a small wigwam quite by itself on the edge of a wood. Lifting the door-flap, he saw no one but an old blind man, who greeted him thankfully.

"Ho, my grandson! You see me, I am old and poor. All the day I see no one. When I wish to drink, this raw-hide lariat leads me to the stream near by. When I need dry sticks for my fire, I follow this other rope and feel my way among the trees. I have food enough, for these bags are packed with dried meat for my use. But alas, my grandson, I am all alone here, and I am blind!"

"Take my eyes, grandfather!", at once exclaimed the kind-hearted young man. "You shall go where you will, and I will remain here in your place."

"Ho, ho, my grandson, you are very good!" replied the old man, and he gladly took the eyes of the Rabbit and went out into the world.

The youth stayed behind, and as he was hungry, he ate of the dried meat in the bags. This made him very thirsty, so he took hold of the raw-hide rope and followed it to the stream; but as he stooped to the brink, the rope broke and Mashtinna fell in.

The water was cold and the bank slippery, but after a hard struggle he got out again and made his way back to the teepee, dripping wet and very miserable. Wishing to make a fire and dry his clothes, he seized the other rope and went to the wood for sticks.

However, when he began to gather the sticks he lost the rope, and being quite blind he did nothing but stumble over fallen logs, and bruise himself against the trunks of trees, and scratch his face among the briers and brambles, until at last he could bear it no longer, and cried out to his comrade to come to his aid.

Instantly the youth appeared and gave him back his eyes, saying at the same time: "Friend, be not so rash in future! It is right to help those who are in trouble, but you must also consider whether you are able to hold out to the end."

The coming of Thunder


Bear's sister-in-law, Deer, had two beautiful fawn daughters. Bear was a horrible, wicked woman, and she wanted the fawns for herself. So this is what she did.

One day she invited Deer to accompany her when she went to pick clover. The two fawns remained at home. While resting during the day after having gathered much clover, Bear offered to pick lice from Deer's head. While doing so she watched her chance, took Deer unaware, and bit her neck so hard that she killed her. Then she devoured her, all except the liver. This she placed in the bottom of a basket filled with clover,and took it home. She gave the basket of clover to the fawns to eat.

When they asked where their mother was, she replied, "She will come soon. You know she's always slow and takes her time in coming home."

So the fawns ate the clover, but when they reached the bottom of the basket, they discovered the liver. Then they knew their aunt had killed their mother.

"We had better watch out, or she will kill us too," they said to one another. They decided to run away and go to their grandfather. So the next day when Bear was out, they got together all the baskets and awls which belonged to Deer and departed. They left one basket, however, in the house.

When Bear returned and found the Fawns missing, she hunted for their tracks and set out after them. After she had trailed them a short distance, the basket they had left at home whistled. Bear ran back to the house, thinking the fawns had returned. But she could not find them and so set out again, following their tracks.

The fawns meanwhile had proceeded on their journey, throwing awls and baskets in different directions. These awls and baskets whistled. Each time she heard them, Bear thought that the fawns were whistling, and she left the trail in search of them. And each time that Bear was fooled in this manner, she became angrier and angrier.

She shouted in anger: "Those girls are making a fool of me. When I capture them, I'll eat them." The awls only whistled in response, and Bear ran toward the sound. No one was there.

Finally, the fawns, far ahead of Bear, came to the river. On the opposite side they saw Daddy Longlegs. They asked him to stretch his leg across the river so that they could cross safely, because Bear had killed their mother and they were fleeing from her. He did, and when Bear at last came to the river, Daddy Longlegs stretched his leg over again.

But just as the wicked aunt of the two fawns, walking on his leg, reached the middle of the river, Daddy Longlegs gave his leg a sudden twitch and threw her into the water.

However, Bear did not drown. She managed to swim to shore, where she again started in pursuit of the fawns. But the fawns were far ahead of their aunt and soon reached their grandfather's house. Their grandfather was Lizard. They told him of the terrible fate which had overtaken their mother. "Where is Bear?" he asked them. "She is following us and will soon be here," they replied.

Upon hearing this, Lizard threw two large white stones into the fire and heated them. When Bear arrived outside Lizard's house, she could not find an entrance. She asked Lizard how she should come in, and he told her that the only entrance was through the smoke hole. She must climb on the roof and enter that way, he said, and when she did, she must close her eyes tightly and open her mouth wide.

Bear followed these instructions, for Lizard had told her that the two fawns were in his house. As Bear entered, eyes closed and mouth open, Lizard took the red-hot stones from the fire and thrust them down her throat. Bear rolled from the top of Lizard's house and landed on the ground dead.

Lizard skinned her and dressed her hide, after which he cut it in two pieces, one large and one small. The larger piece he gave to the older fawn, the smaller piece to the younger. Then Lizard instructed the girls to run about and see what kind of noise was made by Bear's skin. The girls proceeded to run, and the pieces of skin crackled loudly. Lizard, watching them, laughed and said to himself, "The girls are all right. They are Thunders. I think I had better send them up to the sky."

When the fawns came to Lizard to tell him that they were going to return home, he said, "Don't go home. I have a good place for you in the sky."

So the girls went to the sky, and Lizard could hear them running about up there. Their aunt's skin, which they had kept, makes the loud noises that we call thunder. Whenever the fawn girls (Thunders, as Lizard called them) run around in the sky, rain and hail fall.


Stammespolizei; war f√ľr alle Indianer der Plains und Pr√§rie typisch.¬†

Die Akicita wurde vom Stammesrat ernannt. Die Mitglieder der Akicita stellte entweder einen Kriegerbund, wie die sog. Schwarzm√ľnder bei den Mandan und Hidatsa oder verschiedene Kriegerb√ľnde wechselten einander ab. Bei den Aissiniboin, Santee und Omaha wurde die Polizeigewalt von Personen aufrgund ihrer milit√§rischen F√§higkeiten und Tapferkeit ausge√ľbt. Bei den Pr√§rieindianern wurde die Funktion von bestimmten Genres wahrgenommen. Die Funktion der Akicita war nicht einheitlich. In der Regel bestanden ihre Pflichten darin, die Beschl√ľsse des Rates der Stammesh√§uptlinge durchzusetzen, auf die Ordnung im Lager und w√§hrend des Marsches zu achten, t√§tliche Auseinandersetzungen zu verhindern und die B√ľffeljagden zu organisieren. Die Akicita war mit bestimmten Vollmachten ausgestattet. So durften sie z.B. Bestrafungen an Personen vornehmen, die die Stammesnormen verletzten. Ihre Aufgaben beschr√§nkten sich also nicht ausschlie√ülich darauf, als B√ľffelpolizei zu wirken. Die Akicita entwickelte ich bei einigen St√§mmen weiter zu einer Art Kriegergebilde. So standen bei den Dakota jedem H√§uptling 1 - 2 Mitglieder der Akicita als Leibw√§chter, Ratgeber und Helfer zur Seite.¬†



Verehrung der toten Vorfahren.

Diese Ahnenverehrung war bei fast allen Indianern Nordamerikas bekannt, vor allem bei den Bodenbauern und K√ľstenindianern. Sie glauben, dass die Menschen aus dem sichtbaren K√∂rper, einer unsichtbaren Seele und dem Geist oder Schatten bestehen. F√ľr die nordamerikanischen Indianer lebt die Seele nach dem Tod in den gl√ľcklichen Jagdgr√ľnden. Nach ihrer Vorstellung ist dies ein Land, in dem es weder Hunger noch Sorgen, weder Krankheiten noch Gefahren gibt. Der Schatten des Toten bleibt aber immer in der N√§he der Lebenden. Bei manchen St√§mmen zogen fr√ľher sogar die Schatten der toten Krieger mit in den Kampf. Um die guten Geister der Ahnen g√ľnstig zu stimmen, f√ľhren die Indianer heute noch T√§nze, verbunden mit Gebeten, auf und bringen ihnen Gaben dar. Besonders ausgepr√§gt war der Ahnenkult bei den K√ľstenindianern. Bei ihnen werden sogar Tiere wie der Wal, der Biber oder der Rabe als Ahnen verehrt. Die K√ľstenindianer tragen bei ihren T√§nzen auch Tiermasken. Sie sollen an die Verbindungen des Clans zu seinen geistigen Vorfahren erinnern.¬†



Alle Stämme Nordamerikas praktizierten die Adoption. Die Adoptierten wurden als gleichberechtigtes Mitglied in die betreffende Familie und ethnische Einheit aufgenommen. 


Adoptierte wurden auch geraubt, wenn z.B. durch K√§mpfe und Kriege ein menschlicher Verlust auszugleichen war. Auch Gefangene wurden aus diesen Gr√ľnden adoptiert.¬†


Bei den Irokesen beeinflussten umfangreiche Faktoren die Entscheidung der Adoption. Die Situation und Persönlichkeit des zu Adoptierenden mussten passen.  


Gew√∂hnlich suchten die Familien nach einem guten Ersatz f√ľr einen toten Verwandten, also pr√ľften sie die Gefangenen auf √Ąhnlichkeiten in der Erscheinung, in Haltung, Alter und Geschlecht. Wurde ein passender Gefangener gefunden, so hat man ihn in der Tat als Ersatz betrachtet und adoptiert. Falls er eine Probezeit der Anpassung in der Familie, im Klan oder der Gemeinschaft bestand, galt die Adoption als rechtsverbindlich. Der Adoptierte √ľbernahm damit alle Verantwortungen und Verpflichtungen des Toten bez√ľglich Ehe, Klan, Priesterschaft etc. Aber eine solche Adoption verlief nicht immer problemlos, schon gar nicht im Falle des H√§uptlings Aharihon.¬†


Der Onondaga-H√§uptling Aharihon war ber√ľchtigt f√ľr die Qualen, die er seinen Gefangenen bereitete. Er hasste alles Fremde, dass hei√üt jeden Menschen, der nicht Mitglied seines Stammes war und vermied konsequent jeden Kontakt mit Fremden. Wenn sie ihm in die H√§nde fielen, bediente er sich wohl√ľberlegt, der schlimmsten Grausamkeiten. So rief allein der Klang seines Namens Entsetzen bei seinen Feinden hervor, egal ob Indianer oder Europ√§er. Und gerade das war seine Absicht: Er wollte alle denkbaren Feinde, woher auch immer sie kamen, von Angriffen auf die Irokesen abschrecken. Darin war er weitgehend erfolgreich.¬†


Zumindest in europ√§ischen Augen stempelten ihn seine Taten zu einem sadistischen Scheusal. Aber das war nicht die ganze Wahrheit. In seiner eigenen Gemeinschaft und nach irokesischem Ma√üstab war er ein Vorbild an Rechtschaffenheit. Er war ein liebender Ehemann und Vater und ein weiser Anf√ľhrer. Bei seinen eigenen Leuten wurde er stets geachtet, bewegte er sich doch im Rahmen ihrer Sitten und Vorstellungen. Er hielt sich an die Regeln seines Volkes, wenn er auch, was die Marter betrifft, manchmal bis an die Grenzen ging.¬†


Aharihons Bruder (vielleicht sogar sein Zwilling) war um 1654 von den Erie-Indianern im Kampf get√∂tet worden, und seither hatte Aharihon schon √∂fters eine Adoption erwogen und in die Wege geleitet. Aber mit sadistischer Regelm√§√üigkeit √§nderte er stets seine Meinung und verurteilte den betreffenden Krieger zum Marter-Tod, wobei er jedesmal behauptete, der Gefangene habe sich seines toten Bruders als unw√ľrdig erwiesen.¬†


In einem besonders grausigen Fall erweckte er die Erwartungen eines jungen Mannes, indem er ihm vier junge Hunde schenkte, die anl√§sslich seines Adoptivfestes verspeist werden sollten. Aber w√§hrend die Feier schon im Gang war, stand Aharihon pl√∂tzlich auf und beschuldigte den Adoptionskandidaten. Und w√§hrend der restlichen Nacht wurde der junge Mann unbarmherzig von den F√ľ√üen aufw√§rts langsam ger√∂stet, obwohl andere Irokesen f√ľr ihn eintraten, um seinen Qualen ein Ende zu machen.¬†


Nach indianischen Begriffen starb er keinen guten Tod, denn bis in den nächsten Tag hinein schrie und heulte er um sein Leben. Von Gefangenen erwartete man, dass sie mit stoischem Gleichmut in den Tod gingen, Sterbelieder sangen und ihre Peiniger beschimpften.  





i > mittels, wegen; by means of, on account of ni > Leben, Atemzug; life, breath kagapi > sie machen; they make, cause




Dieses rituelle Schwitzbad ist durchdrungen von therapeutischen und religi√∂sen Motiven. Auf den Grundst√ľcken der traditionellen Lakota in den Reservaten st√∂√üt man oft auf die kuppelf√∂rmige Schwitzh√ľtte, dem initi, inipi oder initipi (Sweat Lodge). Sie geh√∂rt auch zu den typischen Elementen eines Protest-Camps. Die Schwitzh√ľtte geh√∂rt zu den sieben heiligen Riten, die Whope den Lakotas brachte. In erster Linie diente sie der Reinigung. Sie ist jedoch vorgeschriebener Bestandteil der Visionssuche und des Sonnentanzes. Denn nur wer v√∂llig rein an K√∂rper und Seele war, konnte mit den Kr√§ften des Universums in Kontakt treten. Das Ritual bringt K√∂rper und Geist im Einklang mit dem Kosmos und so kann man die (angegriffene) Lebenskraft wieder herzustellen. Der Mensch kommt in unmittelbaren Kontakt mit den f√ľnf Elementen (Stein, Feuer, Wasser, Erde und Luft). Kranke erflehen von Wakan Tanka in der Schwitzh√ľtte Heilung. Der Lakota sagt, dass in der Schwitzh√ľtte mehr Energie sei, als in einem Atomkraftwerk. Positive Energie, versteht sich. Das hei√üe Schwitzen selbst symbolisiert den Tod und die Wiedergeburt jedes einzelnen Teilnehmers. Aber auch in normalen Lebenssituationen und zu allen Zeit r√§umen halten verschiedene Medizinm√§nner und andere, mit der Zeremonie Vertraute, fast t√§glich, meist in den Abendstunden, Schwitzh√ľttenzeremonien ab. Jedem interessierten Lakota als auch anderen Indianern und sogar den Wei√üen wird die M√∂glichkeit geboten, auf traditionelle Weise zu schwitzen.


"Die wei√üen Leute nennen es Schwitzh√ľtte, f√ľr die Lakota ist es eine H√ľtte, um den K√∂rper stark und rein zu machen. Wenn ein Lakota ini macht, so macht er sein ni stark und hilft ihm, all das aus dem K√∂rper zu entfernen, was ihm schadet. Das ni eines Lakota ist das, was er in seinen K√∂rper einatmet. Es geht ganz durch diesen hindurch und h√§lt ihn am Leben. Wenn das ni den K√∂rper eines Lakota verl√§sst, ist er tot. Inipi bewirkt, das das ni eines Menschen all das aus seinem K√∂rper entfernt, was ihn falsch denken l√§sst."


Wer eine Schwitzh√ľtte selber bauen will, sollte eines bedenken: Mit diesen Dingen treibt man keine Sp√§√üe. Die Arbeit sollte mit dem n√∂tigen Respekt verrichtet werden und auf keinen Fall sollte Geld von anderen Teilnehmern genommen werden. Spirituelle Rituale sind immer gratis. Es kann gef√§hrlich werden, wenn man mit den Kr√§ften der H√∂heren Wesen nicht umgehen kann. Die H√ľtte sollte an einem ruhigen Ort errichtet werden und dort, wo man eine gr√∂√üere Feuerstelle anlegen darf. Die H√ľtte sollte rund 5 Meter von der Feuerstelle entfernt sein. Die durchschnittliche Schwitzh√ľtte hat Platz f√ľr acht bis zw√∂lf Personen. In gro√üe Lakota-Schwitzh√ľtten passen sogar 20 Leute und mehr. Vor Beginn des Baus einer Schwitzh√ľtte opfert der Medinzinmann den heiligen vier Himmelsrichtungen, dem Himmel und Untschi (Gro√ümutter Erde) Tabak. Zuerst wird ein Kreis von 35 cm Durchmesser auf die Erde gezeichnet, das wird die Steingrube, die sp√§ter ausgehoben wird. Man setzt sich mit gekreuzten Beinen vor den Kreis; der Abstand zwischen Kreis und Knien sollte etwa einen Meter betragen. Nun wird eine Schnur an einem Stock befestigt, den man in das Zentrum des Kreises steckt. Die Schnur spannt man hinter dem R√ľcken und einige Zentimeter weiter und zeichnet so mit Hilfe der Schnur einen gr√∂√üeren Kreis auf die Erde - f√ľr den √§u√üeren Rahmen der Schwitzh√ľtte. Der Durchmesser f√ľr eine mittlere Schwitzh√ľtte betr√§gt rund 2,30 Meter. Entlang des Randes werden 16 kleine L√∂cher ausgehoben, in die sp√§ter die Weidenst√§be gesteckt werden und die den Rahmen der Schwitzh√ľtte bilden. In jedes dieser L√∂cher legt der Medizinmann, oder wer immer die Zeremonie leitet, den heiligen Tabak als Segen, wobei er von Westen nach Osten geht und ohne Unterbrechung betet. Die ersten Pfosten werden rechts und links von der Stelle aufgestellt, wo der Eingang sein wird. Dieser zeigt immer nach Westen. Das Ger√ľst einer Schwitzh√ľtte wird nach wie vor aus Weidenruten errichtet. Man nimmt dazu geschmeidige Weiden√§ste von der wei√üen Weide, die an Bachufern w√§chst. Im Sommer, wenn die Weide im Saft steht, l√∂st sich die Borke leicht vom Ast und man kann sie in langen Streifen vom Ast ziehen. Im Winter jedoch hat die Weide wenig Saft, so dass die Rinde nicht abgeht. Im Sommer sind die Weidenzweige einer Schwitzh√ľtte also immer gesch√§lt, im Winter nie; und so kann man erkennen, wann eine Schwitzh√ľtte gebaut wurde. Der Rahmen besteht aus 16 √Ąsten (sie stehen f√ľr das gesamte Universum). F√ľr eine kleinere H√ľtte gen√ľgen 12 √Ąste (sie versinn bildlichen die zw√∂lf Monde der Monate). Sie werden nach innen gebogen, um eine bienenkorb√§hnliche Kuppel zu bilden, etwa halb so hoch wie ein Mann. Das ist der Rahmen, das Skelett des Initi, das die Knochen und Rippen unserer Leute symbolisiert. Die Zahl 16 steht f√ľr 16 Geheimnisse, die 16 gro√üen Geistwesen, die alle samt Erscheinungsformen von Wakan Tanka sind. Bevor man ans Werk geht, sollte der Baum um Erlaubnis gebeten werden und es sollte ihm mitgeteilt werden, wof√ľr man seine √Ąste braucht. Die Zweige und Bl√§tter werden gekappt, die Enden werden f√ľr die Stangen gespitzt. Dickere √Ąste sollte man vor biegen, am besten zwischen zwei starken Baumst√§mmen. Die zugespitzten Enden werden in regelm√§√üigen Abst√§nden an den √§u√üeren Kreis der Schwitzh√ľtte gelegt. Dabei sollte nicht vergessen werden, eine √Ėffnung f√ľr die T√ľr frei zu lassen. Nun werden die L√∂cher f√ľr die Stangen vorgebohrt. Die Weiden sollten tief genug in der Erde stecken. Sie m√ľssen halten, wenn man sie biegt. Die h√∂chste Biegung sollte rund 1,20 Meter betragen. Die Schwitzh√ľtte sollte nicht zu hoch gebaut werden, sonst verliert sie zuviel Hitze. Die einzelnen Weiden werden an den Ber√ľhrungspunkten mit roten Stoffb√§ndern zusammen gebunden; nicht mehr mit nassen Rohhautriemen, denn Bisonh√§ute sind rar und kostspielig geworden. Es sollten auch keine N√§gel verwendet werden. Um die Konstruktion zu verst√§rken, kann man auch die Querzweige der √Ąste horizontal zu den aufrechten √Ąsten binden. Als n√§chstes wird der Boden ges√§ubert, gefegt und gegl√§ttet, im Innern darf nur das sein, was f√ľr die Reinigung gebraucht wird. Ist der Dom fertig (f√ľr die Lakota Spiegelbild des Universums), wird ein Grube (Iniowaspe) in der Mitte der H√ľtte f√ľr die Steine ausgehoben. Es sollte rund 50 cm tief sein. Die Steine (inyan wakan, sacred rocks) auf der Feuerstelle (peta oihankesni, Feuer ohne Ende) werden einige Meter vor dem Schwitzh√ľtteneingang zum Gl√ľhen gebracht werden. Die gewonnene Erde wird nicht irgendwo hingeworfen, sondern aufbewahrt, um damit den heiligen H√ľgel, den Altar, rechts vor der T√ľr der H√ľtte zu errichten. Dort kann man w√§hrend der Zeremonie seinen Schmuck ablegen, um ihn mit Energie aufladen zu lassen.


"Du brauchst auch keine Armbanduhr, denn es gibt keine Zeit in der Welt der Geister."


Der heilige H√ľgel ist klein, rund und oben abgeflacht gebaut. Um ihn herum werden 24 kleine St√∂ckchen aufgestellt. Diese repr√§sentieren die 12 Monate des Jahres, zwei f√ľr jeden Monat, weil alles eine positive und negative Seite hat. Auf den Erdh√ľgel legt man, gest√ľtzt auf gegabelte St√∂cke, Tschanunpa, die heilige Pfeife, wobei der Pfeifenkopf aus rotem Stein nach Norden ausgerichtet wird. Ferner kommt auf den H√ľgel ein B√ľffelsch√§del, der nach S√ľden zeigt. S√ľden steht f√ľr die Geisterwelt, die "Eulennation". Manchmal wird auch ein Stab in die Erde gesteckt, dessen obere H√§lfte rot bemalt ist, was den Tag repr√§sentiert, w√§hrend die untere H√§lfte schwarz ist, f√ľr die Nacht. An der Spitze wird eine Adlerfeder festgebunden und in der Mitte, wo sich Tag und Nacht treffen, einen Hirschschwanz. Das Gerippe um die zentrale Vertiefung im Boden wird mit Decken, Zeltplanen, Plastikfolien oder Segeltuch, einige auch mit Teerpappe abgedeckt. Teerpappe hat den Vorteil, dass sie immer drauf bleibt und das Innere der H√ľtte vor Regen gesch√ľtzt ist. Fr√ľher deckte man die H√ľtten nat√ľrlich mit Bisonfellen ab. Damit auch vom Boden her kein Licht in das Innere der Schwitzh√ľtte dringen kann, werden die Deckenr√§nder mit Steinen beschwert. Die √Ėffnung zur H√ľtte wird dadurch gew√§hrleistet, dass sich an einer Seite eine Plane hochklappen l√§sst. Der Eingang liegt traditionell im Westen, kann sich aber auch im Osten befinden, (was nicht so gerne gesehen wird) etwa wenn sich zwei Schwitzh√ľtten, mit einer Feuerstelle in der Mitte, gegen√ľberliegen.




Sobald der Rahmen bedeckt ist, wird S√ľ√ügras angez√ľndet, das dann die H√ľtte mit seinem Wohlgeruch erf√ľllt, sie heiligt und w√ľrdig macht, die Geister zu empfangen. Mit der Erde, die nach dem Errichten des H√ľgels noch √ľbrig ist, wird der heilige Pfad Inyan canku (Weg der Steine), der Schwitzh√ľtte und Feuerstelle, in der die Steine erhitzt werden, verbindet, gelegt. Er ist ein weiteres grundlegendes Element der gesamten Anlage.




Untschi (der Erdh√ľgel - Gro√ümutter) ist am Ende des Pfades, acht Schritte vom Eingang der Schwitzh√ľtte entfernt. Sobald der heilige Pfad gezogen ist, sollte niemand ihn kreuzen oder √ľber ihn steigen. Er ist der Weg des Lebens, der Weg des Indianers. Nur die Feuerleute, die die gl√ľhenden Steine in die H√ľtte bringen, d√ľrfen diesen Weg begehen. Dann ist da noch der Ort, wo das Heilige Feuer angez√ľndet wird, Peta Owihankeschni das "Feuer ohne Ende", die Flamme, die von Generation zu Generation weitergereicht wird, dieses Feuer ist rein. Er befindet sich acht Schritte au√üerhalb der T√ľre. Die Feuergabe ist der Sonne (Wi) geweiht und repr√§sentiert sogleich diese gro√üe Kraft, die W√§rme und Leben spendet und ohne die nichts leben kann. Die Feuerstelle stellt das Universum dar, in dem Tunkashila selbst wohnt. Sie wird von einem Wall aus den verwendeten Steinen umgeben und ist wie ein Hufeisen geformt, ein Kreis mit einer √Ėffnung in Richtung Schwitzh√ľtteneingang. Auf der Feuergrube werden in Ost-West-Richtung vier St√∂cke gelegt und darauf dann vier weitere St√∂cke, die nach Norden und S√ľden zeigen. Dar√ľber kommen mehrere Scheite, die in Form eines Tipis aneinandergelehnt werden. Es wird immer mit der heiligen Zahl vier oder Kombinationen von vier (8, 16, 24, 32 usw.) gearbeitet. Auf und zwischen die Scheite werden die Steine gelegt. Zun√§chst vier Steine f√ľr die vier Himmelsrichtungen, darauf werden die restlichen Steine get√ľrmt, deren Anzahl nicht eigens vorgeschrieben ist (meist jedoch etwa 20). Dann schichtet man das √ľbrige Holz und die Steine drum herum, bis das Ganze der Form nach einem konischen Tipi gleicht. Die Steine f√ľr das Ritual werden auf dem Feld gesammelt. Sie sollten eine gewisse Gr√∂√üe haben, zwei, drei oder mehr Kilogramm schwer sein. Die Steine d√ľrfen im Feuer keine Risse bekommen oder gar bersten und wom√∂glich den Teilnehmern w√§hrend der Zeremonie ins Gesicht fliegen. Faustgro√üe Steine zerspringen oft im Feuer in tausend St√ľcke, sie sind dann auch f√ľr das Auf gie√üen ungeeignet. F√ľr das Entz√ľnden des Feuers sollte man bereits abgestorbene B√§ume verwenden oder Holz von bereits gef√§llten B√§umen. Jeden falls: F√ľr jeden Baum, der im Heiligen Feuer sein Leben gibt, sollte ein kurzes Dankgebet gesprochen werden. Bevor das Feuer angez√ľndet wird, wird der Scheiterhaufen mit vier Prisen Tabak und einem gesungenen Gebet gesegnet:


"Wai-on ki-e, Wai-on ki-e, Wai-on ki-e; Tschanunpa kele, Wakan jelo, Wai-on ki-e; Wai-on ki-e, Wai-on ki-e, Wai-on ki-e; Ojanke kele, Wakan jelo, Wai-on ki-e"




"Ich rufe Dich. Ich stehe hier mit der Heiligen Pfeife. Ich rufe Dich, wie ich es lernte, wie es mir weitergegeben wurde. Ich rufe Dich, schau auf die Heilige Pfeife in meinen Händen. Ich rufe Dich. Der Ort, an dem wir stehen, ist heilig. Segne ihn."


Das Schwitzh√ľtten-Ritual der Lakota ist einfach und ohne Schn√∂rkel. Die H√ľtte ist ein Ort der Besinnung, an dem man in tiefer Demut seine Gebete spricht, egal ob vor, w√§hrend oder nach der Zeremonie. Nat√ľrlich darf auch gelacht werden, alles ist erlaubt, wenn es in der Balance des Universums liegt.


"Die Schwitzh√ľtte ist kein Ort f√ľr selbsternannte Gurus, die ihre Sch√ľler wild schreiend und gestikulierend um das Feuer tanzen lassen. Ich habe schon Zeremonien gesehen, bei denen sich die Teilnehmer ihre Gesichter mit Ru√ü schw√§rzten und ihren K√∂rper wild bemalten. Dann heulten sie wie die W√∂lfe den Mond an und schlugen wie wahnsinnig auf ihre Trommeln ein. Dabei stampften sie mit ihren F√ľ√üen auch noch den Boden platt. Das einzige was sie damit erreichten, war, dass sie alle Geister und Energien vertrieben. Das Schlimme ist, das die Veranstalter solcher Schwitzh√ľtten-"Zeremonien" auch noch Geld von den Teilnehmern verlangen. Bis zu 300 Mark sind keine Seltenheit."


Die Lakota raten nat√ľrlich von solchen Schwitzh√ľtten-Ritualen ab.


"Ich habe nichts dagegen, wenn der wei√üe Mann sich in der Schwitzh√ľtte dem Gro√üen Geist n√§hert. Wer and√§chtig schwitzt und betet, dem lehrt Tunkashila Dankbarkeit und Demut - und das ist der Schl√ľssel zum irdischen Gl√ľck, das Geheimnis f√ľr Gesundheit und Wohlbefinden. Wer aber in der Schwitzh√ľtte die Geister ruft, muss auch verstehen, was sie ihm sagen. Es kann f√ľr den, der mit ihren Kr√§ften und Energien spielt, sehr gef√§hrlich werden. Besonders f√ľr den, der die Zeremonie abh√§lt. Es gibt viele traditionelle Indianer, die sehen es √ľberhaupt nicht gerne, wenn sich Europ√§er unserer heiligen Riten bem√§chtigen. Es ist nicht die Kultur der Wei√üen, sagen sie. Die Wei√üen sollen in ihre Gold protzenden Kirchen gehen und beten, nicht in unseren Schwitzh√ľtten. Ich sehe das etwas differenzierter. Wenn der wei√üe Mann mit dem n√∂tigen Respekt und dem n√∂tigen Wissen an die Sache herangeht, ist dagegen nichts einzuwenden. Denn Spirit-Gro√üvater ist f√ľr alle Menschen da. Die Wei√üen d√ľrfen nur die Grenze nicht √ľberschreiten. Sie m√ľssen wissen, dass sie nie eine rote Haut bekommen werden. Sie m√∂gen in ihrem Herzen uns Indianern sehr nahe stehen, aber es gibt keine wei√üen Lakota."


Vor jedem Schwitzh√ľtten-Ritual und jeder Heilzeremonie knoten die Teilnehmer insgesamt 405 Tabakbeutelchen. Man legt kleine, farbige Stoffquadrate (wenn m√∂glich Baumwolle) in die Handfl√§che und gibt eine Prise Tabak hinein. Dabei spricht man ein Gebet. Man bittet nicht f√ľr sich selbst, sondern immer f√ľr andere. F√ľr die Familie, f√ľr Freunde, Bekannte oder Nachbarn. Man f√§ngt dieses Gebet ein, indem man den Stoff zu einem kleinen Beutel dreht und ihn mit einem roten Faden zusammenbindet. Die kleinen Beutelchen werden so an den Faden geknotet, dass sie wie Perlen aufgereiht an der Schnur baumeln. Es bedarf dabei einiger √úbung. Das Schwierige dabei ist, den Knoten so zu schlingen, dass der Beutel fest am Faden h√§ngt. Je nach Teilnehmerzahl dreht jeder zwischen 20 und 40 Beutelchen, bis eben 405 St√ľck beisammen sind. Es d√ľrfen auch mehr sein, nicht aber weniger. Sind alle Tabakbeutelchen fertig, werden sie vor dem Ritual √ľber die Weidenstangen der Schwitzh√ľtte gewickelt. Mit dem hei√üen Dampf steigen dann die gesprochenen Gebete in den Himmel auf, werden dort von Tunkashila, dem Spirit-Gro√üvater, erh√∂rt. Wenn die Schwitzh√ľtte abgedeckt ist, kann man die vielen bunten Tabakbeutelchen sehen, die an den Weidenstangen h√§ngen. Es ist ein sch√∂nes und friedliches Bild, und man wei√ü, dass jedes der Beutelchen ein gesprochenes Gebet ist.

Die 405 Beutelchen stehen f√ľr die 405 Geister, die im Auftrag der H√∂heren Wesen ihre Dienste verrichten.


"Diese Geister sind die √úberbringer der heilenden Kr√§fte an einen Medizinmann. Die 405 Geist-Helfer, auch wei√üe Steinm√§nner Helfer genannt, werden in vier Gruppen eingeteilt, wobei jede Gruppe einen ganz bestimmten Aufgabenbereich hat. So ist eine Gruppe f√ľr die Medizin der Natur verantwortlich. Die Geister wirken durch Pflanzen und Kr√§uter, sie sagen dem Medizinmann w√§hrend einer Zeremonie, wie er die Kr√§uter anzuwenden hat. Eine andere Gruppe der Geist-Helfer ist f√ľr das Tr√§umen verantwortlich. Sie schicken dem Medizinmann ganz gewisse Tr√§ume, von denen er Heilrituale und Heilprognosen ableiten kann. Bei der Yuwipi-Zeremonie ist es die Gruppe der Steingeister, die durch die Splitter in den beiden Rasseln zum Medizinmann sprechen und ihm Anweisung geben. Nicht jeder Medizinmann ist automatisch berechtigt, die Hilfe aller 405 Geisthelfer in Anspruch zu nehmen. Welcher Geister er sich bedienen darf, das wird ihm im Laufe der Jahre durch Visionen mitgeteilt. Nur erfahrene, meist schon √§ltere Medizin m√§nner haben die Erlaubnis erhalten, mit allen 405 Geistern in Kontakt zu treten. Man muss mit diesen Kr√§ften sehr vorsichtig umgehen. Die Geister vermitteln einem sehr viel Wissen. Besonders die vierte Gruppe. Diese Geisthelfer erweitern mein Bewusstsein, indem sie in mich eindringen. Meist passiert das in der Schwitzh√ľtte, wenn ich allein mit der Pfeife bete, um einem Kranken zu helfen. Die Helfer kommen in Form von feurigen Punkten. Sie sausen um mich herum, dringen dann durch meinen Kopf in den K√∂rper ein. Ich stelle ihnen ganz spezielle Fragen zur Krankheit eines bestimmten Patienten und sie antworten mir. Ich sehe ihre Antworten plastisch vor meinen Augen, mein Kopf droht dabei zu zerspringen. Es ist eine ÔŅĹberm√§chtige Erfahrung, die man nicht jeden Tag machen kann. Sind die Geister weg, muss ich mich hinlegen und schlafen. Mein K√∂rper ist dann wie ausgelaugt, ich habe keine Kraft mehr. Darum kann man das nicht alle Tage machen."


Die Steine (inyan wakan, sacred rocks) auf der Feuerstelle (peta oihankesni, Feuer ohne Ende) einige Meter vor dem Schwitzh√ľtteneingang, werden nun zum Gl√ľhen gebracht werden. Es dauert Stunden, bis das Feuer heruntergebrannt ist. Allm√§hlich finden sich dann die Teilnehmer bei der Schwitzh√ľtte ein. Man sitzt auf Klappst√ľhlen, B√§nken oder auf der Erde, bespricht diverse Angelegenheiten oder lernt sich erst kennen. √Ąltere reden auf Lakota miteinander. Der Raum ist vor, w√§hrend und nach dem eigentlichen Schwitzen ein Ort der Begegnung, der Unterhaltung. Die Schwitzh√ľtte war fr√ľher ein Reinigungsritual, das nur den M√§nnern vorbehalten war. Die Frauen reinigten sich durch ihre Menstruation. Da der Mann keine solch nat√ľrliche Reinigung hatte, musste er in die Schwitzh√ľtte. In der modernen Zeit griff die Schwitzh√ľtten-Bewegung auch auf die Frauen √ľber. Es gibt spezielle Schwitzzeremonien f√ľr Frauen, die mit einer Zeremonienleiterin abgehalten werden. Meist ist das die Tochter eines Medizinmannes, die von ihrem Vater die Gebete und Ges√§nge gelernt hat. Gemischte Schwitzh√ľtten sind bei Indianern noch selten. Archie Fire Lame Deer sagt, dass er es nie zulassen w√ľrde, dass Frauen und M√§nner gleichzeitig in einer H√ľtte sitzen, noch dazu nackt:


"Meine Religion ist eben nicht f√ľr alle und ich werde sie nicht √§ndern, um es fremden Leuten recht zu machen. Das Inipi ist eine religi√∂se Zeremonie."


Es gibt gen√ľgend Beispiele daf√ľr, dass selbsternannte Schamanen und Zeremonien-Leiter das Schwitzh√ľtten-Ritual zu einem sexuell ausgerichteten Ritus umwandeln. Archie Fire Lame Deer betont aber immer wieder:


"Es darf nicht einmal der geringste Verdacht aufkommen, dass so etwas in unserer Schwitzh√ľtte geschehen k√∂nnte. Es w√ľrde unsere Rituale und unsere Religion in Verruf bringen."


Die Lakota w√ľrden auch nie nackt in die Schwitzh√ľtte gehen. Die Frauen tragen meist ein kn√∂chellanges, d√ľnnes Hemdchen. Die M√§nner tragen Shorts oder bedecken ihre Scham mit einem um die H√ľften geschlungenen Handtuch, welches den urspr√ľnglich gebr√§uchlichen Lederschurz ersetzt. Dazu gibt Archie Fire Lame Deer eine Anweisung, die seine pers√∂nliche Haltung wieder gibt, aber nicht die, weder die ehemalige noch die derzeitige, Sexmoral der Lakota vertritt:


"Wenn du in die Schwitzh√ľtte kriechst, komme nicht mit einem Handtuch um die Lenden. Du sollst ja wiedergeboren werden. Also zier dich nicht."


Der Leiter der Zeremonie betritt als Erster mit der cannunpa wakan das initipi und r√§uchert es mit Salbei bzw. S√ľ√ügras, indem er im Uhrzeigersinn um die Grube in der Mitte geht, und setzt sich rechts neben dem Eingang. Das hei√üt, er muss beinahe vollst√§ndig um die Grube im Zentrum herumkriechen, um seinen Platz einzunehmen. Er richtet seine Sachen her. Pfeife, Kr√§uter, Rassel, Trommel, Horn und den Stock, mit dem er die Steine in der Grube ordnet. Viel besser als ein Stock eignet sich dazu das Geweih eines Hirsches. Es ist hart und kann nicht anbrennen. Au√üerdem ist das Geweih wakan, es ist heilig. Die pr√§parierte Pfeife lehnt er an den Erdh√ľgel unci (Gro√ümutter) vor dem Eingang bzw. an eine St√ľtze aus √Ąsten (pipe rack). Der Erdh√ľgel ist manchmal mit Steinen umlegt, manchmal liegt ein Bisonsch√§del darauf. Nach dem Leiter folgen die Teilnehmer. Sie gehen erst einmal um die H√ľtte herum und dann kriecht einer nach dem anderen auf allen Vieren durch die kleine T√ľr. Das hat etwas mit Demut zu tun und soll uns daran erinnern, dass wir wie unsere Tierbr√ľder sind, dass wir das letzte Tier sind, was erschaffen wurde. Man begr√ľ√üt die H√ľtte mit den Worten "mitakuye oyasin" und folgt dann dem Lauf der Sonne, also kriecht im Uhrzeigersinn in die niedrige H√ľtte. Der erste Teilnehmer setzt sich rechts neben den Zeremonienleiter und so weiter, bis sich der Kreis schlie√üt und der letzte Teilnehmer links neben der T√ľr seinen Platz findet. Er fungiert als Gehilfe des H√ľttenleiters. Traditionellerweise sitzt man in einer sweat lodge (im Schneidersitz oder auf den Fersen) auf Salbeizweigen, die auf dem Erdboden zwischen Grube und Wand ausgebreitet worden sind. (Salbei w√§chst in Amerika wie Gras auf den Feldern). Man kann nat√ľrlich auch ein Handtuch nehmen. Das ist sogar empfehlenswert. Denn wenn sehr hei√ü wird, kann man sich mit dem Handtuch vor dem Dampf sch√ľtzen. Jeder Teilnehmer hat in der H√ľtte seinen Platz gefunden. Er wurde nicht zuf√§llig gew√§hlt, jeder sitzt dort, wo er sich am wohlsten f√ľhlt. Denn jeder Platz in der H√ľtte hat seine Bestimmung und seinen Sinn. Die gl√ľhenden Steine werden durch die sog. Feuerleute in die H√ľtte gebracht. Das sind Frauen oder M√§nner, die das Feuer h√ľten, meist dieselben Personen, die die Steine erhitzt haben. Sie sind dazu bestimmt, die gl√ľhenden Brocken mit einem Geweih, also nicht mit einem gegabeltem Stock oder √§hnlichem, zur Schwitzh√ľtte zu bef√∂rdern; bei einem M√§nnerschwitzbad kann auch eine Frau diese Aufgabe √ľbernehmen. Man beginnt mit sechs Steinen. Der erste Stein repr√§sentiert Wakinjan (Donnergeist), der eine Rolle in der Zeremonie spielt, sowie Maka (Erde), deren Farbe gr√ľn ist. Der H√ľter des Feuers dreht sich auf seinem Weg zur Schwitzh√ľtte mit diesem ersten Stein viermal um sich selbst. Der Medizinmann im Innern der Schwitzh√ľtte lenkt (m√∂glichst) mit zwei Wapitigeweihen den Stein zu dessen Platz in der Mitte der Grube. Dabei sagt er Mitakuye Oyasin. Jeder Stein wird von den Teilnehmern mit einem lauten Hau Hau begr√ľ√üt. Mit dem zweiten Stein, den der H√ľter des heiligen Feuers zur Schwitzh√ľtte tr√§gt, dreht er sich viermal nach rechts, mit dem dritten Stein viermal nach links und mit dem vierten Stein wieder viermal nach rechts. Seine Drehungen sollen uns an die Bewegungen von Himmelsk√∂rpern, wie dem Morgenstern erinnern. Der zweite Stein wird in die Grube an der Westseite plaziert, deren Farbe schwarz ist. Der dritte an der Nordseite, dessen Farbe ist rot. Der vierte an der Ostseite, deren Farbe ist gelb. W√§hrend so die ersten vier Steine hereingebracht werden, kommen die Geister in die Schwitzh√ľtte. Der f√ľnfte Stein wird nach S√ľden ausgerichtet, dessen Farbe ist wei√ü. Er repr√§sentiert die Geisterwelt und erinnert uns an die Freunde und Verwandten, die in eine andere Welt gegangen sind, "nach S√ľden gegangen sind" wie wir sagen. Der sechste Stein wird auf den ersten gelegt. Er repr√§sentiert den Himmel, der wiederum ein Symbol f√ľr Wakan Tanka, den Sch√∂pfer ist. Seine Farbe ist blau. Nach dem Stein, der den Himmel repr√§sentiert kann jede beliebige Zahl von Steinen in die Schwitzh√ľtte gebracht werden, je nach Wunsch des Mannes, der die Zeremonie leitet. Die Arbeit des Helfers ist bereits schwei√üreibend, denn die auseinander fallenden Steine und Holzreste str√∂men eine immense Hitze aus und sind ziemlich schwer und schwierig auf der Gabel zu balancieren. Nachdem die erste Gruppe von Steinen an ihrem Platz liegt, schlie√üt der H√ľter des Feuers die Eingangslasche und alle in der Schwitzh√ľtte sind von Dunkelheit umh√ľllt. Wir f√ľrchten uns nicht vor dem Dunkel, im Gegenteil: Dunkelheit steht f√ľr die Nacht, die "Zeit der Geister". In der Dunkelheit musst du mit dem Auge in deinem Herzen sehen und diese neue Art des Sehens offenbart uns die Wirklichkeit, die sich grundlegend von den so genannten "Realit√§ten" der materiellen, technologischen Welt unterscheidet. Die Schw√§rze im Innern der Schwitzh√ľtte macht uns auch wieder bewusst, dass wir alle ein Volk sind, denn wir k√∂nnen die Hautfarbe oder das Aussehen der Gesichter der anderen nicht erkennen. Jetzt m√ľssen wir alles vergessen; all die allt√§glichen, weltlichen Sorgen. Wir m√ľssen unsere Gedanken auf das Spirituelle richten, die rechte Gehirnh√§lfte. Es ist warm, eine trockene Hitze die von den Steinen abgegeben wird. Das r√∂tliche Gl√ľhen spendet ein wenig Licht, ein reines Licht, es repr√§sentiert die Reinheit spiritueller Erleuchtung. Der Leiter streut nun Thuja auf die Steine und die Schwitzh√ľtte wird mit Wohlgeruch erf√ľllt. Mit der hohlen Hand streichen wir uns diesen wunderbaren, lebendigen Duft √ľber Gesicht und Brust. W√§hrend des Inipi werden drei Arten von Kr√§utern verwendet: Watschanga S√ľ√ügras, um das Negative und Positive hereinzubringen Salbei um negative Geister zu verjagen Thuja um die Steine zu segnen und die Pfeife zu f√ľllen Die Geistwesen sch√§tzen die Kr√§uter. Wir bitten sie, mit uns zu sein, so wie uns das Ptesan Win, die heilige Frau die uns die Pfeife brachte, lehrte. Dies ist die Zeit der Gebete. Wir beten f√ľr alles Positive und Negative und f√ľr das Gleichgewicht dieser Kr√§fte. F√ľr die im Inipi Kreis Sitzenden wird die Schwitzh√ľtte zum Universum, komprimiert in einer kleinen H√ľtte. Helfer bleibt normalerweise au√üerhalb der Schwitzh√ľtte rechts vom Eingang. Auf Anweisung √∂ffnet und schlie√üt er die Eingangsklappe und reicht die Pfeife taschanschascha herein. Diese wird mit dem heiligem roten Tabak gef√ľllt. Obendrauf stopfen wir Salbei, denn er ist der Feind allen Negativen. Die so versiegelte Pfeife schicken wir wieder nach drau√üen, wo sie an den B√ľffelsch√§delaltar gelehnt wird. Sp√§ter wird sie wieder hereingenommen, um mit ihr die Zeremonie zu beenden. Au√üerdem tauchen wir ein Salbeib√ľndel ins Wasser und besprenkeln damit die Steine. Traditionell wird frisches Wasser aus einer Quelle oder einem Bach in der N√§he verwendet, allerdings wird heute vermehrt Leitungswasser ben√ľtzt, was vorher gesegnet wurde. Auch hat heute der Eimer als Beh√§lter den einstigen Ledersack ersetzt, in dem urspr√ľnglich das verwendete Wasser transportiert wurde, der Leiter hat ihn mit einem Sch√∂pfl√∂ffel neben sich zu stehen. Sobald Feuer und Wasser aufeinander treffen, f√ľllt sich der ganze Raum mit wei√üen, hei√üen Dampf, Tunkaschilas Atem. Wir singen unser erstes Lied:


"Kate wiotsch pejata. Kate wasi ta. Kate wio hjap. Ataito kat schata."




"Mit dem heiligen Thuja komme ich zum Westen, dem Westen, eine Opfergabe zu Kate bringen, wo die Donnerwesen leben."


Bei einem guten Inipi kommen die Geistwesen hinein. Es gibt sechzehn Geistwesen, acht positive und acht negative. Negativ:


Anung-Ite > die doppelgesichtige Frau. Eine Hälfte des Gesichts ist unbeschreiblich schön, die andere abscheulich Iktomi > der Spinnenmann. Ein großmäuliger Trickser und Unruhestifter Kanka > die alte Hexe, die manchmal jemanden einen guten Dienst erweist Wasi > der alte Zauberer, der wie ein kalter Wind von Norden her kommt Ksa > ein weiser Geist, zuweilen Wassergöttin, ein gerissenes Wesen Tob Tob > der freundliche 4 x 4-Geist, ein vier-Himmelsrichtungen Wind- und gottähnlicher Bote Kate > Windgeist Jumni > Wirbelwind, der die Menschen das Hunka lehrte: die Zeremonie, mit der jemand als Bruder adoptiert wird.


Im gro√üen und ganzen sind sie harmlose Unruhestifter und Trickser, ein bisschen wie Trolle und Kobolde im M√§rchen des wei√üen Mannes, es ist eine Menge hojoka in ihnen. Ihre Hauptaufgabe ist es, uns √ľber uns selbst lachen zu machen, selbst in traurigen und schwierigen Zeiten. Das schwelende S√ľ√ügras zieht diese Geister an, sie m√∂gen den Geruch. Salbei jedoch k√∂nnen sie nicht ausstehen. Positiv:


Wi > die Leben spendende Sonne Ska > die gro√üe beschleunigende Macht, die alles in Bewegung h√§lt Maka > die Erde Injan > den Stein und Felsen der ewig ist Hanwi > den Mond, unsere Nacht-Sonne Unk > den Geist der Auseinandersetzung, eine Wasserg√∂ttin und eine Gef√§hrtin der Erde Wakinjan > den Gefl√ľgelten oder Donnervogel Folgende Geister sind in der Schwitzh√ľtte anwesend, ob man sie nun wahrnimmt, oder nicht. Irgendwo hier ist au√üerdem Nija (Spirit), der Geist oder die Seele und Nagi (Ghost), der Totengeist


Der Geist ist ewig. Der Toten Geist, der Schatten eines Menschen, existiert nur f√ľr begrenzte Zeit. Traditionell besteht ein Reinigungs-Ritual aus vier bis sechs T√ľren. Das hei√üt, vier- bis sechsmal l√ľftet der Helfer auf des Leiters Ruf "mitakuye oyasin" die Eingangsklappe und l√§sst Luft und Licht herein; h√§lt ein Teilnehmer die Hitze nicht mehr aus, kann auch er √ľber diesen Ruf die Unterbrechung herbei f√ľhren. Eine Heilzeremonie dagegen hat bis zu 24 T√ľren. Die L√§nge der Zeremonie bleibt jedem selbst √ľberlassen. Auch die Anzahl der T√ľren, sie muss sich nur durch vier teilen lassen. Ebenso die Anzahl der Steine. Zu Beginn und w√§hrend jeder Schwitzrunde (round) gie√üt der Leiter Wasser auf die hei√üen Steine und erzeugt so hei√üen Dampf, auch verbrennt er Salbei, S√ľ√ügras, manchmal auch Zedernbl√§tter. In den "Pausen" reicht er jedem Teilnehmer einen Sch√∂pfl√∂ffel Wasser zum Trinken oder benetzen des erhitzten K√∂rpers, er selbst erfrischt sich zuletzt. Die Ges√§nge, die er in den dunklen Phasen anstimmt, werden auch heute noch, m√∂glichst von allen Teilnehmern, auf Lakota gesungen. Die Mehrheit der Lakota beherrscht die Sprache ihrer Vorfahren nicht, andere nur noch teilweise, weil sie in ihrer Kindheit zum Besuch einer "boarding school" (Internat) gezwungen wurden. Aber viele haben zumindest die spezifischen Ges√§nge der Schwitzh√ľttenzeremonie oder des Sonnentanzes auswendig gelernt und wissen um die inhaltliche Bedeutung.


"Hoschila tschea i-a jajo. Wanblee gleshkawa. Ekt-sche wetscha schake. Tschechpi komo jankelo. Hokschila tschea i-a jajo. Taku waka wanitsche."




"Mein Freund, gehe weiter auf deinem Weg. Weine, denn nichts, was du dir selbst erschaffst, ist heilig. Heilig ist der Adler, der ÔŅĹber dir fliegt. Verbinde dich mit ihm und verbinde dich mit der Erde, so wie es die traditionellen Menschen immer getan haben. H√∂re auf die Botschaft des Adlers und auf die Stimme der Mutter Erde, denn sie sind vom Sch√∂pfer geschaffen. Du brauchst sie f√ľr deine Spiritualit√§t, denn was du dir selbst erschaffst ist nicht heilig. Weine und gehe weiter."


In der zweiten Runde ist es √ľblich, dass reihum jeder ein spontanes pers√∂nliches Gebet zu Tunkasila (Gro√üvater, -v√§ter) richtet. Wer Hemmungen hat, laut zu beten, kann seine Bitten auch gedanklich vortragen und abschlie√üend die Formel "mitakuye oyasin" sagen, wodurch sein linker Nachbar wei√ü, das er an der Reihe ist. Wer der Lakota-Sprache m√§chtig ist, benutzt sie zum Gebet, es sei denn, er legt Wert darauf, dass seine Worte mit Sicherheit von allen verstanden werden. Ansonsten kann in jeder Sprache gebetet werden. Mit Tunkasila ist Wakan Tanka gemeint, aber auch die Grandfathers, das sind die Hilfsgeister Verstorbener.


"Wenn ein Mensch stirbt, bleibt sein Geist kurze Zeit hier. Die guten Geister gehen in die Geisterwelt und bleiben dort. Sie k√∂nnen aber in die Welt zur√ľckkommen und zu der Menschheit sprechen. Ein heiliger Mann kann mit den Geistern sprechen. Ein Geist kann sprechen mit seinen Freunden."


Gebetet wird f√ľr das Wohl der Anwesenden, der Angeh√∂rigen, das Volk der Lakota: "Tunkasila, wache √ľber...". Auch W√ľnsche bezogen auf die eigene Person werden ge√§u√üert, beispielsweise die Bitte um die Erkl√§rung eines Traums. Nicht selten wird darum gebetet, dass die Lakota an ihren Traditionen festhalten m√∂gen und nicht dem Alkohol und der Apathie verfallen. Die √ľbrigen geben ihre Zustimmung zu dem Gesagten mit dem Ausdruck "hau". Bei der Unterhaltung handelt es sich um eine zwischen zwei sich wieder spiegelnden Welten, der irdischen und der spirituellen. Meistens ist es die dritte Runde, in der die Pfeife geraucht gemeinsam geraucht wird. Nach Beendigung des vierten Durchgangs treten die Teilnehmer mit dem Spruch "mitakuye oyasin", beginnend mit dem Leiter, ins Freie. Man trocknet den noch schwei√ünassen K√∂rper ab, es wird selten anschlie√üend ein kaltes Bad genommen, und kleidet sich an. Meist ist es bereits dunkel geworden, und man unterh√§lt sich am Schein der immer noch schwelenden Feuerstelle bei einem Festessen. Die Schwitzh√ľttenzeremonie muss, genauso wie alle anderen Riten, richtig ausgef√ľhrt werden, um keinen Schaden anzurichten sondern Gutes zu bewirken.


"Der Leiter schickte einmal einen Jungen zu einem ca. 150 entfernten Haus (zwischen Schwitzh√ľtte und Haus floss ein Bach), um den ben√∂tigten Eimer Wasser zu besorgen. Als der Junge wieder kam, war er so durstig geworden, dass er hastig eine Kelle von dem Wasser trank. Der Leiter lie√ü ihn das Wasser auskippen und neues holen, da, wie er sagte, erst Mother Earth von dem Wasser zu trinken habe."


Die gegenw√§rtige Schwitzh√ľttenzeremonie weicht von ihrem ehemalig ausgef√ľhrten Vorbild nur √§u√üerlich ab. Moderne Materialien und Werkzeuge sind an die Stelle von organischen getreten. Unter der Parole Mitakuye oyasin ist das inikagapi der direkte Kontakt zu den Grundelementen Feuer, Wasser, Erde, Luft, Holz und Stein, das Aufgehen in der Gemeinschaft, das Ersp√ľren eines universalen Beziehungszusammenhang, die symbolische Wiedergeburt aus der, die Geb√§rmutter symbolisierenden H√ľtte geblieben. Au√üerdem stellt die Schwitzh√ľttenzeremonie heute f√ľr viele eine Alternative zur anonymen, klinischen angloamerikanischen Gesellschaft dar, im Gegensatz zum seelischen Tod im wenig Anregung bietenden Reservatsalltag. Die von Black Elk ersehnte Wertsch√§tzung dieser wiederbelebenden Zeremonie steigt, denn immer wieder befinden sich Neulinge unter den Teilnehmern. Der religi√∂s-praktische Sinn war die innere und √§u√üere Reinigung des K√∂rpers. Der tats√§chliche gesundheitliche Effekt: Abh√§rtung und Erh√∂hung der physischen Widerstandskraft. Es galt als gesichert, dass diese Sitte ein verh√§ltnism√§√üig erhebliches h√∂heres Durchschnittsalter bescherte, als es die damaligen Wei√üen besa√üen (etwa 80 : 48).


Case of the severed head


Once in a lonely lodge there lived a man, his wife, and two children ‚Äď a girl and a boy. In front of the lodge, not far off, was a great lake, and a plain trail leading from the lodge down to the shore where the family used to go for water.

Every day the man went hunting, but before starting he would paint the woman red all over, coating her face, her arms, and her whole body with this sacred medicine to protect her from harm. After he departed, she would leave the children alone in the lodge and go for water; when she returned with it, the red paint was always gone and her hair was unbraided. She would manage to get back with her water just before her husband arrived. Not being a good hunter, he never brought any meat.

Though he asked her no questions, her husband thought it strange that every night the paint he had put on his wife in the morning had disappeared. One day he said to his daughter, "What does your mother do every day? When I go out, I paint her, and when I get back, she has no paint on." The girl replied, "Whenever you start out hunting, she goes for water, and she is usually away for a long time."

The next day, the man painted his wife as usual and then took his bow and arrows and left the lodge. But instead of going off hunting, he went down to the lake shore, dug a hole in the sand, and buried himself, leaving a little place where he could look out.

The man had not been hidden long when he saw his wife coming with a bucket. When she was near the water's edge, she slipped off her dress, unbraided her hair, sat down on the shore, and said, "Na shu eh', I am here." Soon the man saw the water begin to move, and a mih'ni, a water spirit, rose from it, crawled out on the land, crept up to the woman, wrapped itself about her, and licked off all the red paint that was on her body.

The man emerged from his hiding place and rushed down to the pair. With his knife he cut the monster to pieces and cut off his wife's head. The pieces of the monster crept and rolled back into the water and were never seen again. The man cut off the woman's arms at the elbow and her legs at the knees. Saying, "Take your wife!" he threw these pieces and her head into the water. Then he opened the body, extracted a side of her ribs, and skinned it.

Returning to the lodge, he said, "Ah, my little children, I have had good luck; I have killed an antelope and brought back some of the meat. Where is your mother?" The children answered, "Our mother has gone to bring water." "Well," he said, "since I killed my meat sooner than I thought, I carried it back to camp. Your mother will be here pretty soon. In the meantime I'll cook something for you to eat before I go out again."

He cooked a kettle of meat and took it to the children, who both ate. The little boy, who was the younger and the last one to suckle, said to his sister, "This tastes like mother!" "Oh," said his sister, "keep still; this is antelope meat."

After the children had finished, the little girl saved some of the meat for the mother to eat when she returned. The father got his moccasins and other things together and started off, intending never to come back. He was going to look for his tribe's camp.

After he had gone, the children were sitting in the lodge, the girl making moccasins and putting porcupine quills on them. Suddenly they heard a voice outside say, "I love my children, but they don't love me; they have eaten me!" The girl said to her brother, "Look out the door and see who is coming." The boy looked out and then cried, very much frightened, "Sister, here comes our mother's head!" "Shut the door," cried the girl. The little boy did so. The girl picked up her moccasins and her quills - red, white, and yellow -‚Äď rolled them up, and seized her root digger.

Meanwhile the head had rolled against the door. "Daughter, open the door," it called. The head would strike the door, roll part way up the lodge, and then fall back again. The girl and her brother ran to the door, pushed it open, and stood to the side. The head rolled into the lodge and clear across to the back. The girl and boy jumped out, the girl closed the door, and both children ran away as fast as they could. As they ran, they heard the mother calling to them from the lodge.

They ran, and they ran, and at last the boy called, "sister, I'm tired; I can't run any longer." The girl took his robe and carried it for him, and they ran on.

At last they reached the top of the divide, they looked back, and there they could see the head coming, rolling over the prairie. Somehow it had gotten out of the lodge. The children kept running, but at last the head had almost overtaken them. The little boy was frightened nearly to death, as well as exhausted. The sister said, "This running is almost killing my brother. When I was a little girl playing, sometimes the prickly pears were so thick on the ground that I couldn't get through them." As she said this, she scattered behind her a handful of the yellow porcupine quills. At once there appeared a great bed of tall prickly pears with great yellow thorns. This cactus patch was strung out for a long way in both directions across the trail they had made.

When the head reached that place, it rolled up on the prickly pears and tried to roll over them, but kept getting caught in the thorns. For a long time it kept trying and trying to work its way through, and at last it did get loose from the thorns and passed over. But by this time the girl and the boy had gone a long distance.

After a while, however, they looked back and again saw the head coming. The little boy almost fainted. He kept calling out, "Sister, I'm tired; I can't run any longer." When the sister heard him, she said while she was running, "When I was a little girl, I often used to find the bullberry bushes very thick." As she said this, she threw behind her a handful of the white quills, and where they touched the ground a huge grove of thick, thorny bullberry bushes grew up. They blocked the way, and the head stopped there for a long time, unable to pass through the bushes.

The children ran on and on, toward the place where the tribe had last been camped. But at length they looked back and saw the head coming again. The little boy called out, "Sister, I'm tired; I can't run any longer." Again the girl threw quills behind - this time the red ones - and a great thicket of thorny rosebushes sprang up and stopped the head.

Again the children went a long way, but at last they saw the head coming, and the boy called out: "Sister, I'm tired." Then the sister said, "When I was a little girl playing, I often came to small ravines that I couldn't cross." She stopped and drew the point of her root digger over the ground in front of her. This made a little groove in the dirt, and she placed the root digger across the groove. Then she and her brother walked over on the root digger, and when they had crossed, the furrow became wider and wider and deeper and deeper.

Soon it was a great chasm with cut walls, and at the bottom they could see a little water trickling. "Now," said the girl, "we will run no longer; we will stay here." "No, no," said the boy, "let's run." "No," said the girl, "I will kill our mother here."

Presently the head came rolling up to the edge of the ravine and stopped. "Daughter," it said, "where did you cross? Place your root digger on the ground so that I can cross too." The girl attempted to do so, but the boy pulled her back every time. At last she managed to lay the root digger down, and the head began rolling over. But when it was halfway across, the girl tipped the stick, the head fell into the ravine, and the ravine closed on it.

After this the children started on again to look for the people. At last they found the camp and drew near it. Before they arrived, however, they heard a man's loud voice. As they came closer, they saw that it was their father speaking. He was walking about the camp and telling everyone that while he was out hunting, his two children had killed and eaten their mother. He warned the people that if the children came to the camp, they should not be allowed to enter.

When they heard this, the children were frightened. Still, they didn't know what else to do but go on into the camp. The people immediately caught them and tied their hands and feet. And the next day the whole tribe moved away and left the children there, still tied.

In the camp there was an old, old dog who knew what had happened and took pity on the children. The night of their arrival, she went into a lodge, stole some sinew, a knife, and an awl, and took them into a hole where she had her pups.

The next day after all the people had gone, the children heard a dog howling. Presently the old, old dog approached them. "Grandchildren," she said, "I pity you and have come to help you." The girl said, "Untie me first, and I can untie my brother." So the old dog began to gnaw at the rawhide strings around the girl's hands. The animal had no teeth and could not cut the cords, but they became wet and began to slip. The girl kept working her hands and at last got them free. She untied her legs and then freed her brother.

That evening they walked about through the camp and picked up old moccasins to wear. Both children were crying, and so was the dog. They all sat on the hill near the camp and cried bitterly, for they had nothing to eat, no place to sleep, and nothing to cover themselves with, and winter was coming. The girl and the dog sat weeping with their heads hanging down, but the boy was looking about. Presently he said, "Sister, see that wolf; it's coming straight toward us!" "It's useless for me to look," said the girl. "I couldn't kill him by looking at him, so we can't eat him." "But look, Sister," said the boy, "he's coming right up to us." At last the girl raised her head, and when she looked at the wolf, it fell dead. Then the dog brought the tools that she had stolen before the tribe left. With the knife they cut the wolf up, and from its skin they made a bed for the dog.

The children stayed in the abandoned camp, living well now, while the people in the new camp were starving. The children kept a large fire burning day and night and used big logs so that it never went out.

But after they had eaten the wolf, they began to feel hungry again. The girl became very unhappy, and one day as she sat crying, with the dog sitting beside her and the boy standing and looking about, he said, "Sister, look at that antelope coming!" "No," said the girl, "it's useless for me to look; looking will do no good." "But look even so," said the boy. "Perhaps it will do as the wolf did." The girl looked, and as with the wolf, the antelope fell dead. They cut it up and used its skin to make a bed for themselves. They ate the flesh and fed the old dog on the liver. The girl would chew pieces up fine for the toothless animal.

At last the antelope was all eaten, and again they grew hungry. Again the boy saw a strange-looking animal - this time an elk, which fell dead before the girl's look. She stretched the elk hide, which they used for a shelter. With the sinews the dog had stolen, they sewed their moccasins and mended their clothing.

When the elk ran out, the boy saw a buffalo coming straight to their shelter, and the girl killed it by a look. They cut up the meat and used the hide to make a larger and better shelter, where they stayed until winter came and snow began to fall.

One night when the girl went to bed, she said, "I wish that I might see a lodge over there in that sheltered place in the morning. I could sleep there with my brother and the dog, on a bed in the back of the lodge. I could make a bow and some arrows, so that my brother could kill the buffalo close to the camp when they gather in the underbrush during bad weather." She also wished that her brother might become a young man, and that they might have meat racks in the camp and meat on them.

In the morning when the boy got up and looked out, he said, "Sister, our lodge is over there now." It was in the very place the girl had wished. They moved their possessions and their fire over to it, and when the boy entered the lodge, he was a young man. That winter he killed many buffalo and they had plenty of meat.

One night as she was going to bed, the girl made another wish. "Brother," she said, "our father has treated us very badly. He caused us to eat our mother, and he had us tied up and deserted by the people. I wish we knew how to get word to the camp, and I wish that we had two bears that we could tell to eat our father."

Next morning when the girl got up, two bears were sitting in the lodge on either side of the door. "Hello, my animals," she said. "Arise and eat."

After giving them food, she went out to one of the meat racks and pulled off a piece of bloody fat. She called to a raven that was sitting in a tree nearby: "Come here; I want to send you on an errand." When the raven had flown to her, she said, "Go and look for the camp of my people. Fly about among the lodges and call them. And when the people come out and ask each other, `What's that raven doing? And what is he carrying?' drop this piece of fat into the thick of the crowd. Then tell them that the people you came from have great scaffolds of meat."

The raven took the piece of fat in his bill and flew away. He found the camp and flew about, calling and calling, and a number of men sitting here and there began to say to each other, "What's that raven carrying?" The raven dropped the meat, and someone who picked it up said, "why, it's fresh fat." Then the raven said, "Those people whom you threw away are still in the old camp, and they have scaffolds of meat like this." Then the raven flew back to the girl.

An old man began crying out to the people as he walked through the camp: "Those children whom we threw away have plenty of meat! They are in the old camp, and now we must move back to it as quickly as we can." The people tore down their lodges, packed up, and started back. Some of the young men went ahead in little groups of threes and fours, and when they reached the children's camp, the girl fed them and gave them meat to carry back to the others. All the trees about the lodge were covered with meat, and buffalo hides were stacked in great piles.

After a while the whole village arrived and camped not far from the children's lodge, and everyone began to come to the lodge for food. The girl sent word to her father to hold off until all the rest had been fed, so that he could come and take his time instead of eating in a hurry. She said to the bears, "I'm going to send for your food last. After that person gets here and has eaten, I'll say, `There's your food,' as he goes out of the lodge. Then you may eat him up."

In the evening when the last of the people was leaving the lodge, she said to her brother, "Tell everyone not to come anymore tonight; it is my father's turn now."

When the father came and they fed him, he said happily, "Oh, my children, you're living well here; you have plenty of meat and tongues and back fat." He did not eat everything his daughter had set before him. "I'll take all this home for my breakfast," he said.

After he had left the lodge, the girl said to the bears, "There's your food; eat him up!" The bears sprang after the father and pulled him down. He called to his daughter to take her animals away, but they killed him and began to drag him back to the lodge. The girl said, "Take him off somewhere else and eat him, and what you don't eat, throw into the stream."

What the bears did not eat they threw into the creek, and then they washed their hands, and no one ever knew what had become of the father. Since that time, bears have eaten human flesh when they could.

The boy and the girl returned to the camp, and always afterward lived well there.


Chipmunk and Bear

Long ago when animals could talk, a bear was walking along. Now it has always been said that bears think very highly of themselves. Since they are big and strong, they are certain that they are the most important of the animals. As this bear went along turning over big logs with his paws to look for food to eat, he felt very sure of himself. "There is nothing I cannot do," said this bear.

"Is that so?" said a small voice. Bear looked down. There was a little chipmunk looking up at Bear from its hole in the ground.

"Yes," Bear said, "that is true indeed." He reached out one huge paw and rolled over a big log. "Look at how easily I can do this. I am the strongest of all the animals. I can do anything. All the other animals fear me." "Can you stop the sun from rising in the morning?" said the Chipmunk.

Bear thought for a moment. "I have never tried that," he said. "Yes, I am sure I could stop the sun from rising." "You are sure?" said Chipmunk. "I am sure," said Bear. "Tomorrow morning the sun will not rise. I, Bear, have said so." Bear sat down facing the east to wait.

Behind him the sun set for the night and still he sat there. The chipmunk went into its hole and curled up in its snug little nest, chuckling about how foolish Bear was. All through the night Bear sat. Finally the first birds started their songs and the east glowed with the light which comes before the sun.

"The sun will not rise today," said Bear. He stared hard at the glowing light. "The sun will not rise today."

However, the sun rose, just as it always had. Bear was very upset, but Chipmunk was delighted. He laughed and laughed. "Sun is stronger than Bear," said the chipmunk, twittering with laughter. Chipmunk was so amused that he came out of his hole and began running around in circles, singing this song:

"The sun came up,The sun came up.Bear is angry,But the sun came up."

While Bear sat there looking very unhappy, Chipmunk ran around and around, singing and laughing until he was so weak that he rolled over on his back. Then, quicker than the leap of a fish from a stream, Bear shot out one big paw and pinned him to the ground.

"Perhaps I cannot stop the sun from rising," said Bear, "but you will never see another sunrise."

'Oh, Bear," said the chipmunk. "oh, oh, oh, you are the strongest, you are the quickest, you are the best of all of the animals. I was only joking." But Bear did not move his paw. "Oh, Bear," Chipmunk said, "you are right to kill me, I deserve to die. Just please let me say one last prayer to Creator before you eat me."

"Say your prayer quickly," said Bear. "Your time to walk the Sky Road has come!"

"Oh, Bear," said Chipmunk, "I would like to die. But you are pressing down on me so hard I cannot breathe. I can hardly squeak. I do not have enough breath to say a prayer. If you would just lift your paw a little, just a little bit, then I could breathe. And I could say my last prayer to the Maker of all, to the one who made great, wise, powerful Bear and the foolish, weak, little Chipmunk."

"Bear lifted up his paw. He lifted it just a little bit. That little bit, though, was enough. Chipmunk squirmed free and ran for his hole as quickly as the blinking of an eye. Bear swung his paw at the little chipmunk as it darted away. He was not quick enough to catch him, but the very tips of his long claws scraped along Chipmunk's back leaving three pale scars.

To this day, all chipmunks wear those scars as a reminder to them of what happens when one animal makes fun to another




One day the Creator was resting, sitting, watching some children at play in a village. The children laughed and sang, yet as he watched them, the Creator's heart was sad. He was thinking: "These children will grow old. Their skin will become wrinkled. Their hair will turn gray. Their teeth will fall out. The young hunter's arm will fail. These lovely young girls will grow ugly and fat. The playful puppies will become blind, mangy dogs. And those wonderful flowers - yellow and blue, red and purple - will fade. The leaves from the trees will fall and dry up. Already they are turning yellow."

Thus the Creator grew sadder and sadder. It was in the fall, and the thought of the coming winter, with its cold and lack of game and green things, made his heart heavy.

Yet it was still warm, and the sun was shining. The Creator watched the play of sunlight and shadow on the ground, the yellow leaves being carried here and there by the wind. He saw the blueness of the sky, the whiteness of some cornmeal ground by the women. Suddenly he smiled. "All those colors, they ought to be preserved. I'll make something to gladden my heart, something for these children to look at and enjoy."

The Creator took out his bag and started gathering things: a spot of sunlight, a handful of blue from the sky, the whiteness of the cornmeal, the shadow of playing children, the blackness of a beautiful girl's hair, the yellow of the falling leaves, the green of the pine needles, the red, purple, and orange of the flowers around him. All these he put into his bag. As an afterthought, he put the songs of the birds in, too.

Then he walked over to the grassy spot where the children were playing. "Children, little children, this is for you," and he gave them his bag. "Open it; there's something nice inside," he told them.

The children opened the bag, and at once hundreds and hundreds of colored butterflies flew out, dancing around the children's heads, settling on their hair, fluttering up again to sip from this or that flower. And the children, enchanted, said that they had never seen anything so beautiful.

The butterflies began to sing, and the children listened smiling.

But then a songbird came flying, settling on the Creator's shoulder, scolding him, saying: "It's not right to give our songs to these new, pretty things. You told us when you made us that every bird would have his own song. And now you've passed them all around. Isn't it enough that you gave your new playthings the colors of the rainbow?" "You're right," said the Creator. "I made one song for each bird, and I shouldn't have taken what belongs to you."

So the Creator took the songs away from the butterflies, and that's why they are silent. "They're beautiful even so!" he said.


Chief Mountain

Chief Mountain is a mountain in Glacier National Park.
Chief Mountain is a mountain in Glacier National Park.


Many years ago, a young Piegan warrior was noted for his bravery. When he grew older and more experienced in war, he became the war-chief for a large band of Piegan warriors.

A little while after he became the war-chief, he fell in love with a girl who was in his tribe, and they got married. He was so in love with her that he took no other wives, and he decided not to go on war parties any more. He and his wife were very happy together; unusually so, and when they had a baby, they were even happier then.

Some moons later, a war party that had left his village was almost destroyed by an enemy. Only four men came back to tell the story. The war-chief was greatly troubled by this. He saw that if the enemy was not punished, they would raid the Piegan camp. So he gave a big war feast and asked all of the young men of his band to come to it. After they had all eaten their fill, the war-chief arose and said to them in solemn tones: "Friends and brothers, you have all heard the story that our four young men have told us. All the others who went out from our camp were killed by the enemy. Only these four have come back to our campfires. Those who were killed were our friends and relatives. We who live must go out on the warpath to avenge the fallen. If we don't, the enemy will think that we are weak and that they can attack us unhurt. Let us not let them attack us here in the camp. I will lead a party on the warpath. Who here will go with me against the enemy that has killed our friends and brothers?"

A party of brave warriors gathered around him, willing to follow their leader. His wife also asked to join the party, but he told her to stay at the camp.

"If you go without me," she said, "you will find an empty lodge when you return."

The chief talked to her and calmed her, and finally convinced her to stay with the women and children and old men in the camp at the foot of a high mountain.

Leading a large party of men, the chief rode out from the village. The Piegans met the enemy and defeated them but their war-chief was killed. Sadly, his followers carried the broken body back to the camp. His wife was crazed with grief. With vacant eyes she wandered everywhere looking for her husband and calling his name. Her friends took care of her, hoping that eventually her mind would become clear again and that she could return to normal life.

One day, though, they could not find her anywhere in the camp. Searching for her, they saw her high up on the side of the mountain, the tall one above their camp. She had her baby in her arms.

The head man of the village sent runners after her, but from the top of the mountain she signalled that they should not try to reach her. All watched in horror as she threw her baby out over the cliff and then herself jumped from the mountain to the rocks far, far below.

Her people buried the woman and baby there among the rocks. They carried the body of the chief to the place and buried him beside them.

From that time on, the mountain that towers above the graves was known as Minnow Stahkoo, "the Mountain of the Chief", or "Chief Mountain". If you look closely, even today, you can see on the face of the mountain the figure of a woman with a baby inn her arms, the wife and child of the chief.


Buffalo Woman, A Story of Magic


Snow Bird, the Caddo medicine man, had a handsome son. When the boy was old enough to be given a man's name, Snow Bird called him Braveness because of his courage as a hunter. Many of the girls in the Caddo village wanted to win Braveness as a husband, but he paid little attention to any of them.

One morning he started out for a day of hunting, and while he was walking along looking for wild game, he saw someone ahead of him sitting under a small elm tree. As he approached, he was surprised to find that the person was a young woman, and he started to turn aside.

"Come here," she called to him in a pleasant voice. Braveness went up to her and saw that she was very young and very beautiful.

"I knew you were coming here," she said, "and so I came to meet you."

"You are not of my people," he replied. "How did you know that I was coming this way?"

"I am Buffalo Woman," she said. "I have seen you many times before, from afar. I want you to take me home with you and let me stay with you."

"I can take you home with me," Braveness answered her, "but you must ask my parents if you can stay with us."

They started for his home at once, and when they arrived there Buffalo Woman asked Braveness's parents if she could stay with them and become the young man's wife. "If Braveness wants you for his wife, we will be pleased," said Snow Bird, the medicine man. "It is time that he had someone to love."

And so Braveness and Buffalo Woman were married in the custom of the Caddo people and lived happily together for several moons. One day she asked him,

"Will you do whatever I may ask of you, Braveness?"

"Yes," he replied, "if what you ask is not unreasonable."

"I want you to go with me to visit my people."

Braveness said that he would go, and the next day they started for her home, she leading the way. After they had walked a long distance they came to some high hills, and all at once she turned round and looked at Braveness and said: "You promised me that you would do anything I say." "Yes," he answered.

"Well," she said, "my home is on the other side of this high hill. I will tell you when we get to my mother. I know there will be many coming there to see who you are, and some may provoke you and try to make you angry, but do not allow yourself to become angry with any of them. Some may try to kill you."

"Why should they do that?" asked Braveness. "Listen to what I am about to tell you," she said. "I knew you before you knew me.

Through magic I made you come to me that first day. I said that some will try to make you angry, and if you show anger at even one of them, the others will join in fighting you until they have killed you. They will be jealous of you. The reason is that I refused many who wanted me." "But you are now my wife," Braveness said.

"I have told you what to do when we get there," Buffalo Woman continued. "Now I want you to lie down on the ground and roll over twice."

Braveness smiled at her, but he did as she had told him to do. He rolled over twice, and when he stood up he found himself changed into a Buffalo.

For a moment Buffalo Woman looked at him, seeing the astonishment in his eyes. Then she rolled over twice, and she also became a Buffalo. Without saying a word she led him to the top of the hill. In the valley off to the west, Braveness could see hundreds and hundreds of Buffalo. "They are my people," said Buffalo Woman. "This is my home."

When the members of the nearest herd saw Braveness and Buffalo Woman coming, they began gathering in one place, as though waiting for them. Buffalo Woman led the way, Braveness following her until they reached an old Buffalo cow, and he knew that she was the mother of his beautiful wife.

For two moons they stayed with the herd. Every now and then, four or five of the young Buffalo males would come around and annoy Braveness, trying to arouse his anger, but he pretended not to notice hem. One night, Buffalo Woman told him that she was ready to go back to his home, and they slipped away over the hills.

When they reached the place where they had turned themselves into Buffalo, they rolled over twice on the ground and became a man and a woman again.

"Promise me that you will not tell anyone of this magical transformation," Buffalo Woman said. "If people learn about it, something bad will happen to us."

They stayed at Braveness's home for twelve moons, and then Buffalo Woman asked him again to go with her to visit her people. They had not been long in the valley of the Buffalo when she told Braveness that the young males who were jealous of him were planning to have a foot-race. "They will challenge you to race and if you do not outrun them they will kill you," she said.

That night Braveness could not sleep. He went out to take a long walk. It was a very dark night without moon or stars, but he could feel the presence of the Wind spirit.

"You are young and strong," the Wind spirit whispered to him, "but you cannot outrun the Buffalo without my help. If you lose, they will kill you. If you win, they will never challenge you again.

"What must I do to save my life and keep my beautiful wife?" asked Braveness.

The Wind spirit gave him two things. "One of these is a magic herb," said the Wind spirit. "The other is dried mud from a medicine wallow. If the Buffalo catch up with you, first throw behind you the magic herb. If they come too close to you again, throw down the dried mud."

The next day was the day of the race. At sunrise the young Buffalo gathered at the starting place. When Braveness joined them, they began making fun of him, telling him he was a man buffalo and therefore had not the power to outrun them. Braveness ignored their jeers, and calmly lined up with them at the starting point.

An old Buffalo started the race with a loud bellow, and at first Braveness took the lead, running very swiftly. But soon the others began gaining on him, and when he heard their hard breathing close upon his heels, he threw the magic herb behind him. By this time he was growing very tired and thought he could not run any more. He looked back and saw one Buffalo holding his head down and coming very fast, rapidly closing the space between him and Braveness. Just as this Buffalo was about to catch up with him, Braveness threw down the dried mud from the medicine wallow.

Soon he was far ahead again, but he knew that he had used up the powers given him by the Wind spirit. As he neared the goal set for the race, he heard the pounding of hooves coming closer behind him. At the last moment, he felt a strong wind on his face as it passed him to stir up dust and keep the Buffalo from overtaking him. With the help of the Wind spirit, Braveness crossed the goal first and won the race. After that, none of the Buffalo ever challenged him again, and he and Buffalo Woman lived peacefully with the herd until they were ready to return to his Caddo people.

Not long after their return to Braveness's home, Buffalo Woman gave birth to a handsome son. They named him Buffalo Boy, and soon he was old enough to play with the other children of the village.

One day while Buffalo Woman was cooking dinner, the boy slipped out of the lodge and went to join some other children at play. They played several games and then decided to play that they were Buffalo. Some of them lay on the ground to roll like Buffalo, and Buffalo Boy also did this.

When he rolled over twice, he changed into a real Buffalo calf. Frightened by this, the other children ran for their lodges.

About this time his mother came out to look for him, and when she saw the children running in fear she knew that something must be wrong. She went to see what had happened and found her son changed into a Buffalo calf. Taking him up in her arms, she ran down the hill, and as soon as she was out of sight of the village she turned herself into a Buffalo and with Buffalo Boy started off toward the west.

Late that evening when Braveness returned from hunting he could find neither his wife nor his son in the lodge.

He went out to look for them, and someone told him of the game the children had played and of the magic that had changed his son into a Buffalo calf.

At first, Braveness could not believe what they told him, but after he had followed his wife's tracks down the hill and found the place where she had rolled he knew the story was true. For many moons, Braveness searched for Buffalo Woman and Buffalo Boy, but he never found them again.


Buffalo and Eagle Wing

Native American Lore
Native American Lore

A long time ago there were no stones on the earth. The mountains, hills, and valleys were not rough, and it was easy to walk on the ground swiftly. There were no small trees at that time either. All the bushes and trees were tall and straight and were at equal distances. So a man could travel through a forest without having to make a path.

At that time, a large buffalo roamed over the land. From the water, he had obtained his spirit power--the power to change anything into some other form. He would have that power as long as he only drank from a certain pool.

In his wanderings, Buffalo often travelled across a high mountain. He liked this mountain so much that one day he asked it, "Would you like to be changed into something else?" "Yes," replied the mountain. "I would like to be changed into something nobody would want to climb over." "All right," said Buffalo. "I will change you into something hard that I will call 'stone.' You will be so hard that no one will want to break you and so smooth that no one will want to climb you."

So Buffalo changed the mountain into a large stone. "And I give you the power to change yourself into anything else as long as you do not break yourself." Only buffaloes lived in this part of the land. No people lived here. On the other side of the mountain lived men who were cruel and killed animals. The buffaloes knew about them and stayed as far away from them as possible.

But one day Buffalo thought he would like to see these men. He hoped to make friends with them and persuade them not to kill buffaloes. So he went over the mountain and travelled along a stream until he came to a lodge.

There lived an old woman and her grandson. The little boy liked Buffalo, and Buffalo liked the little boy and his grandmother. He said to them, "I have the power to change you into any form you wish. What would you like most to be?" "I want always to be with my grandson. I want to be changed into anything that will make it possible for me to be with him, wherever he goes." "I will take you to the home of the buffaloes," said their guest. "I will ask them to teach the boy to become a swift runner. I will ask the water to change the grandmother into something, so that you two can always be together."

So Buffalo, the grandmother, and the little boy went over the mountain to the land of the buffaloes. "We will teach you to run swiftly," they told the boy, "if you will promise to keep your people from hunting and killing buffaloes." "I promise," said the boy.

The buffaloes taught him to run so fast that not one of them could keep up with him. The old grandmother could follow him wherever he went, for she had been changed into Wind.

The boy stayed with the buffaloes until he became a man. Then they let him go back to his people, reminding him of his promise. Because he was such a swift runner, he became a leader of the hunters. They called him Eagle Wing. One day the chief called Eagle Wing to him and said to him, "My son, I want you to take the hunters to the buffalo country. We have never been able to kill buffaloes because they run so very fast. But you too can run fast. If you will kill some buffaloes and bring home the meat and the skins, I will adopt you as my son. And when I die, you will become chief of the tribe."

Eagle Wing wanted so much to become chief that he pushed from his mind his promise to the buffaloes. He started out with the hunters, but he climbed the mountain so fast that they were soon left far behind. On the other side of the mountain, he saw a herd of buffaloes. They started to run in fright, but Eagle Wing followed them and killed most of them. Buffalo, the great one who got his power from the water, was away from home at the time of the hunt. On his way back he grew so thirsty that he drank from some water on the other side of the mountain not from his special pool.

When he reached home and saw what the hunter had done, he became very angry. He tried to turn the men into grass, but he could not. Because he had drunk from another pool, he had lost his power to transform. Buffalo went to the big stone that had once been a mountain. "What can you do to punish the hunter for what he has done?" he asked Stone. "I will ask the trees to tangle themselves so that it will be difficult for men to travel through them," answered Stone. "I will break myself into many pieces and scatter myself all over the land. Then the swift runner and his followers cannot run over me without hurting their feet." "That will punish them," agreed Buffalo.

So Stone broke itself into many pieces and scattered itself all over the land. Whenever the swift runner, Eagle Wing, and his followers tried to run over the mountain, stones cut their feet. Bushes scratched and bruised their bodies.

That is how Eagle Wing was punished for not keeping his promise to Buffalo.


Bridal Veil Falls

Hundreds of years ago, in the shelter of this valley, lived Tu-tok-a-nula and his people.

He was a wise chief, trusted and loved by his people, always setting a good example by saving crops and game for winter.

While he was hunting one day, he saw the lovely guardian spirit of the valley for the first time. His people called her Ti-sa-yac.

He thought her beautiful beyond his imagination and her voice, as sweet, as the song of a thrush, led him to her. But when he stretched his arms towards her, she rose, lighter than a bird, and soon vanished in the sky. From that moment, the chief knew no peace, and he no longer cared for the well being of his people.

Without his directions, Yosemite became a desert. When Ti-sa-yac came again, after a long time, she wept because bushes were growing where corn had grown before, and bears rooted where the huts had been.

On a mighty dome of a rock, she prayed to the Great Spirit Above, asking him to restore its virtue to the land. He granted her plea.

Stooping from the sky, The Great Spirit Above spread new life of green on all of the valley floor. And smiting the mountains, he broke a channel for the pent-up snow that soon melted. The water ran and leaped far down, pooling in a lake below and flowing off to gladden other lands.

The birds returned with their songs, the flowing plants returned with their blossoms, and the corn soon swayed in the breeze.

When the Yosemite people came back to their valley, they gave the name of Ti-sa-yac to what was once called South Dome. That is where she had prayed.

Then the chief came home again. When he heard what the beautiful spirit maiden had done, his love for her became stronger than ever. Climbing to the crest of a rock that rises three thousand feet above the valley, he carved his likeness there with his hunting knife. He wanted his people to remember him after he departed from the earth.

Tired from his work, he sat at the foot of Bridal Veil Falls. Suddenly he saw a rainbow arching over the figure of Ti-sa-yac, who was shining from the water. She smiled at him and beckoned to him.

With a cry of joy, he sprang into the waterfall and disappeared with his beloved.

The rainbow quivered on the falling water, and the sun went down.


Brave Woman Counts Coup

White River Sioux

Over a hundred years ago, when many Sioux were still living in what now is Minnesota, there was a band of Hunkpapa Sioux at Spirit Lake under a chief called Tawa Makoce, meaning His Country. It was his country, too - Indian country, until the white soldiers with their cannon finally drove the Lakota tribes across the Mni Shoshay: The Big Muddy, the Missouri.

In his youth the chief had been one of the greatest warriors.

Later when his fighting days were over, he was known as a wise leader, invaluable in council, and as a great giver of feasts, a provider for the poor. The chief had three sons and one daughter. The sons tried to be warriors as mighty as their father, but that was a hard thing to do. Again and again they battled the Crow Indians with reckless bravery, exposing themselves in the front rank, fighting hand to hand, until one by one they all were killed. Now only his daughter was left to the sad old chief. Some say her name was Makhta. Others call her Winyan Ohitika, Brave Woman.

The girl was beautiful and proud. Many young men sent their fathers to the old chief with gifts of fine horses that were preliminary to marriage proposals. Among those who desired her for a wife was a young warrior named Red Horn, himself the son of a chief, who sent his father again and again to ask for her hand. But Brave Woman would not marry. "I will not take a husband," she said, "until I have counted coup on the Crows to avenge my dead brothers."

Another young man who loved Brave Woman was Wanblee Cikala, or Little Eagle. He was too shy to declare his love, because he was a poor boy who had never been able to distinguish himself.

At this time the Kangi Oyate, the Crow nation, made a great effort to establish themselves along the banks of the upper Missouri in country which the Sioux considered their own. The Sioux decide to send out a strong war party to chase them back, and among the young men riding out were Red Horn and Little Eagle. "I shall ride with you," Brave Woman said. She put on her best dress of white buckskin richly decorated with beads and porcupine quills, and around her neck she wore a choker of dentalium shells. She went to the old chief. "Father," she said, "I must go to the place where my brothers died. I must count coup for them. Tell me that I can go." The old chief wept with pride and sorrow. "You are my last child," he said, "and I fear for you and for a lonely old age without children to comfort me. But your mind has long been made up. I see that you must go; do it quickly. Wear my warbonnet into battle. Go and do not look back."

And so his daughter, taking her brothers' weapons and her father's warbonnet and best war pony, rode out with the warriors.

They found an enemy village so huge that it seemed to contain the whole Crow nation - hundreds of men and thousands of horses. There were many more Crows than Sioux, but the Sioux attacked nevertheless. Brave Woman was a sight to stir the warriors to great deeds. To Red Horn she gave her oldest brother's lance and shield. "Count coup for my dead brother," she said. To Little Eagle she gave her second brother's bow and arrows. "Count coup for him who owned these," she told him. To another young warrior she gave her youngest brother's war club. She herself carried only her father's old, curved coupstick wrapped in otter fur.

At first Brave Woman held back from the fight. She supported the Sioux by singing brave-heart songs and by making the shrill, trembling war cry with which Indian women encourage their men. But when the Sioux, including her own warriors from the Hunkpapa band, were driven back by overwhelming numbers, she rode into the midst of the battle. She did not try to kill her enemies, but counted coup left and right, touching them with her coupstick. With a woman fighting so bravely among them, what Sioux warrior could think of retreat?

Still, the press of the Crow and their horses drove the Sioux back a second time. Brave Woman's horse was hit by a musket bullet and went down. She was on foot, defenseless, when Red Horn passed her on his speckled pony. She was too proud to call out for help, and he pretended not to see her. Then Little Eagle came riding toward her out of the dust of battle. He dismounted and told her to get on his horse. She did, expecting him to climb up behind her, but he would not. "This horse is wounded and too weak to carry us both," he said. "I won't leave you to be killed," she told him. He took her brother's bow and struck the horse sharply with it across the rump. The horse bolted, as he intended, and Little Eagle went back into battle on foot. Brave Woman herself rallied the warriors for a final charge, which they made with such fury that the Crows had to give way at last.

This was the battle in which the Crow nation was driven away from the Missouri for good. It was a great victory, but many brave young men died. Among them was Little Eagle, struck down with his face to the enemy.

The Sioux warriors broke Red Horn's bow, took his eagle feathers from him, and sent him home. But they placed the body of Little Eagle on a high scaffold on the spot where the enemy camp had been. They killed his horse to serve him in the land of many lodges. "Go willingly," they told the horse. "Your master has need of you in the spirit world."

Brave Woman gashed her arms and legs with a sharp knife. She cut her hair short and tore her white buckskin dress. Thus she mourned for Little Eagle. They had not been man and wife; in fact he had hardly dared speak to her or look at her, but now she asked everybody to treat her as if she were the young warrior's widow.

Brave Woman never took a husband, and she never ceased to mourn for Little Eagle. "I am his widow," she told everyone. She died of old age. She had done a great thing, and her fame endures.


Bluebird and the Coyote

A long time ago the Bluebird's feathers were a very dull ugly colour.It lived near a lake with waters of the most delicate blue which never changed because no stream flowed in or out. Because the bird admired the blue water, it bathed in the lake four times every morning for four days, and every morning it sang:"There's a blue water. It lies there. I went in. I am all blue."On the fourth morning it shed all its feathers and came out in its bareskin, but on the fifth morning it came out with blue feathers.

All the while, Coyote had been watching the bird. He wanted to jump in and catch it for his dinner, but he was afraid of the blue water. But on the fifth morning he said to the Bluebird:"How is it that all your ugly colour has come out of your feathers, and now you are all blue and sprightly and beautiful? You are more beautiful than anything that flies in the air. I want to be blue, too."

"I went in only four times," replied the Bluebird.It then taught Coyote the song it had sung. And so Coyote steeled his courage and jumped into the lake. For four mornings he did this, singing the song the Bluebird had taught him, and on the fifth day he turned as blue as the bird. That made Coyote feel very proud. He was so proud to be a blue coyote that when he walked along he looked about on every side to see if anyone was noticing how fine and blue he was.

Then he started running along very fast, looking at his shadow to see if it also was blue. He was not watching the road, and presently he ran into a stump so hard that it threw him down upon the ground and he became dust-coloured all over.

And to this day all coyotes are the colour of dusty earth.


Blood Clot


Southern Ute

Long ago a very old man and his wife lived alone and hunted for game, but it was scarce and they were hungry.

One day the man discovered some buffalo tracks and followed them to the place where the animal had stopped. There he found only a big clot of blood, which he wrapped in his shirt and carried home.

The old man told his wife to boil the blood, and she put it into the kettle with water from from the creek. But before it came to a boil over the fire, they heard cries inside the kettle. The man ran up to it and pulled out a baby, a little boy, who had somehow formed out of the blood clot.

The old couple washed the baby and wrapped him up. By the next morning he had grown much larger, and that day he continued to grow until he could crawl about by himself. The second day he was able to walk a little; by the third day he was walking with ease. The couple called himn Blood Clot and came to treat him as their son.

The old man made little arrows so that the child could learn to shoot. Soon Blood Clot needed much larger arrows, and with them he began to hunt birds and other small game. He never brought the game home himself, but sent the old man for it.One day Blood Clot returned from hunting and said, "I have killed something with a striped back."

The man went out and fetched an animal bigger than a mouse, which he cooked for the three of them. The next day the boy announced, "I have killed a white short-tailed animal." It was a cottontail, which the man also cooked.

The day after that, Blood Clot went farther and killed a badger. "I have killed an animal in a hole in the ground," he said, and the man brought the creature home and cooked it.The following day when the boy returned, he said, "I have killed animal with black ears and a black tail." To the old man's joy, it was a female deer. The three of them ate and were happy.

Next Blood Clot said, "I have killed a big fellow with big antlers." It was an elk, so again the family feasted on meat. The old man gave the boy a full-sized bow and arrows, and Blood Clot went into the mountains and shot a mountain goat. "I have killed an animal with big horns in the mountains," he said when he came down. "Every day," the old man said proudly, "he kills a different kind of animal."

Now their troubles were over, and they had an easy time. Blood Clot killed a mountain lion. Then he tracked and shot an otter:"I have killed an animal with nice fur, living in the water." The old man tanned the skin to make strings for tying the boy's braids. The following day Blood Clot found a beaver: "I have killed a water animal with a tail of this size."

At last there came a day when Blood Clot said, "I want to visit the village where many people live. Before that, I will go on my last hunt for you, all day and all night. First I want you to tie up the tent, put rocks on the edge, and fasten the door lest the night wind carry it away. Though the wind will be strong, don't go outdoors and don't be afraid. I will call when you can come out."

The old couple obeyed, and he hunted all night while they were sleeping. About daybreak they heard a big noise, forerunner of a wind that threatened to tip over the tent. The man was frightened and wanted to go out, but the wife held him back, reminding him of what their son had said.

When daylight came, they heard their son's voice: "Come on out; I'll show you something." They unfastened the door and saw dead buffalo lying all around. "I have done this for you," Blood Clot said. "Dry the meat and hides; save the meat and it will last you for a long time."

The young man asked his mother to fix him a lunch, and she gave him pemmican."Now my parents have plenty of food," he said. As he left, they cried and asked him to return.

Wearing buckskin leggings, carrying a quiver of mountain lion skin, Blood Clot began to travel. After a few days he reached the village.At the outskirts he asked for the chief's house, and a man told him, "It is in the center." There he found the chief with his wife and daughter. They invited him to sit down, and the chief asked him where he came from and what his tribe was. "I don't know what tribe I belong to. I have come to visit you," Blood Clot replied. The chief stepped outdoors and shouted to the people to come and meet their visitor. The villagers were starving for lack of game, but all gathered at the chief's house and sat down.

The chief said, "Do any of you know the tribe of this young man?" People named the tribes - Deer, Elk, Otters, Beavers, and others. They asked him whether he belonged to any of these, but he thought not. At last one old man said, "I think I know from the power in him, although I may be mistaken. I think he is one of the Buffalo." Blood Clot thought about it, and finally agreed. The people of the village asked Blood Clot to stay and marry the chief's daughter. He agreed to this as well, and the wedding was held.

That evening he asked his father-in-law to bring one arrow from the tipi. When the chief returned, Blood Clot told him to have all the tipis fastened and to warn the people that they should stay indoors, for there would be a great storm. The chief told the villagers, and at daybreak when they heard a big noise, they cried out in fear but did not leave their tipis.Then Blood Clot called to the chief, who came out to find dead buffalo before every lodge. At his son-in-law's bidding he summoned the whole village for a feast, and all were happy.

Blood Clot stayed there until one day when a group of villagers went out to hunt buffalo. Long before this, he had told his wife,"You know the buffalo calf? I am part of that, it is part of me, so you must never say the word 'calf'." When the party killed some buffalo and were butchering, another herd came running past. His wife pointed and called, "Kill that calf!" Immediately Blood Clot jumped on his horse and galloped away, changing as he did so into a buffalo.

His wife cried and attempted to catch him, but in vain. From that time on, Blood Clot ran with the buffalos


Big Long Man's Corn Patch

As soon as Big Long Man got back from the mountains he went to his garden to admire his corn and melons. He had planted a big crop for the coming winter. When he saw that half of the corn stalks had been shucked and the ears stolen, and that the biggest melons were gone off of the melon vines, he was very angry."Who stole my corn and melons?" he muttered to himself. "I'll catch thethief, whoever he is."

He began to scheme.The next day he built a fence around the garden.

But the fence did no good. Each morning Big Long Man found more corn stalks stripped.At last he thought up a scheme to catch the thief. He gathered a great ball of pine pitch and molded it into the shape of a man. He set the figure up in the corn field and then went to his hogan.

That night Skunk came along to get a bit of corn for his dinner. He had heard from Badger that Big Long Man was away in the mountains. He squeezed his body under the fence and waddled up to a clump of corn.He was just about to shuck a fat ear when he noticed a man standing by the fence. Skunk let go of the ear of corn in fright. He could see in the moonlight that the man was not Big Long Man. He waddled over to the fence and spoke to the figure."Who are you, in Big Long Man's corn patch?'' asked Skunk.The figure did not answer."Who are you?" said Skunk again, moving closer.The figure did not answer."Speak!" said Skunk boldly, "or I will punch your face." The figure did not say a word. It did not move an inch."Tell me who you are," said Skunk a fourth time, raising his fist, "or I will punch your face."The figure said not a word. It was very quiet in the moonlit corn field. Even the wind had gone away.Plup went Skunk's fist into the pine gum face. It sunk into the soft pitch, which is as sticky as glue, and there it stuck.Skunk pulled and pulled. "If you don't let go my hand," he shouted, "I will hit you harder with my left hand."But the pine pitch held tight. Plup went Skunk's left hand. Now both hands stuck fast."Let go my hands, or I will kick you," cried Skunk, who was by this time getting mad.The pine gum man did not let go. Plup, Skunk gave a mighty kick with his right foot. The foot stuck too, just like the hands."I will kick you harder," said Skunk and Plup he kicked with all of his strength with his left foot.Pine gum man held that foot too.Skunk struggled but he could not get loose. Now he was in a fine plight. Every limb was heldtight. He had only one more weapon, his teeth."I will bite your throat," he shouted and he dug his teeth into the pine gumthroat."Ugh!" he gurgled for he could no longer say a word. His tongue and teeth were held fast in the pine pitch.

The next morning Big Long Man came to his corn patch and there was Skunk stuck onto the pine gum man. Only his tail was free, waving behind him."Ah!" said Big Long Man. "So it's you, Skunk, who has been stealing my corn." "Ugh," replied Skunk. His mouth full of pine pitch.Big Long Man pulled him away from the gum figure, tied a rope around his neck and led him to his hogan.

He put a great pot of water on the stove to boil, then he took the rope off of Skunk's neck. "Now, Skunk," he said, "go fetch wood."Skunk went out into the back yard. Just then Fox happened to pass by. He was on his way to Big Long Man's corn patch.Skunk began to cry loudly. Fox stopped running, and pricked up his sharp ears."Who is crying?" he said."I am crying," said Skunk."Why?" said Fox."Because I have to carry wood for Big Long Man. He gives me all of the corn I want to eat, but I do not want to carry wood."Fox was hungry. He knew that if he stole corn he was liable to get caught."What an easy way to get corn," he thought. "I would not mind carrying wood."Out loud he said, "Cousin, let us change places. You go home and I will carry wood for Big Long Man. I like the job. Besides, I was just on my way to steal an ear of corn down at the field.""All right," said Skunk. "But don't eat too much corn. I have a stomachache." He felt his fat stomach and groaned. Then he waddled happily away.

Fox gathered up an armful of pi√Īon wood. He hurried into Big Long Man's hogan.Big Long Man looked at him in surprise."Well, well, Skunk, you changed into a fox, did you? That's funny."Fox did not say a word. He was afraid he might say the wrong thing and not get any corn to eat. Big Long Man took the rope which had been around Skunk's neck and tied it around Fox's neck. Fox sat down and waited patiently. Soon the water in the big pot began to bubble and steam. At last Fox said, "Isn't the corn cooked yet, Big Long Man?" "Corn?" asked Big Long Man. "What corn?""Why the corn you are cooking for me," said Fox. "Skunk said you would feed me all of the corn I could eat if I carried wood for you.""The rascal," said Big Long Man. "He tricked you and he tricked me. Well,Fox, you will have to pay for this." So saying he picked up Fox by the ears and set him down in the boiling water. It was so hot that it took off every hair on his body. Big Long Man left him in the pot for a minute and then he pulled him out by the ears and set him free out of doors."Don't be thinking you will ever get any of my corn by tricks," said Big Long Man.

Fox ran yelping toward his den. He was sore all over. Half way home he passed Red Monument. Red Monument is a tall slab of red sand stone that stands alone in a valley. On top of the rock sat Raven eating corn that he had stolen from the corn patch. At the bottom was Coyote holding on to the rock with his paws. He was watching for Raven to drop a few kernels. He glanced behind him when Fox appeared. He did not let go of the rock, however, because he thought Fox might get his place. He was surprised at Fox's appearance."Where is your fur, Fox?" he asked over his shoulder."I ate too much corn," said Fox sadly. "Don't ever eat too much corn, Coyote. It is very painful." Fox held his stomach and groaned. "Corn is very bad for one's fur. It ruined mine.""But where did you get so much corn, cousin?" asked Coyote, still holding onto the rock."Didn't you hear?" asked Fox. "Why, Big Long Man is giving corn to all the animals who carry wood for him. He will give you all you can eat and more too. Just gather an armful of pi√Īon sticks and walk right into his hogan."

"Coyote thought a moment. He was greedy. He decided to go to Big Long Man's hogan but he did not want Fox to go with him. He wanted everything for himself."Cousin," he said, "will you do me a favor? Will you hold this rock while I go and get a bite of corn from Big Long Man? I am very hungry and I do not dare leave this rock. It will fall and kill somebody.""All right," said Fox, smiling to himself. "I will hold the rock. But do not eat too much." He placed his paws on the back side of the rock and Coyote let go. The next minute Coyote was running away as fast as he could toward Big Long Man's hogan.Fox laughed to himself, but after a bit he became tired of holding the rock. He decided to let it fall.

"Look out, Cousin Raven," he shouted. "The rock is going to fall." Fox let go, and jumped far away. Then he ran and did not look behind. He was afraid the rock would hit his tail. If Fox had looked behind him he would have seen the rock standing as steady as a mountain.

Presently, along came Coyote, back from Big Long Man's hogan. He was running at top speed and yowling fearfully. There was not a hair left on his body.When he came to Red Monument he saw Raven still sitting on his high perch nibbling kernels of corn."Where has Fox gone?" howled Coyote who was in a rage.Raven looked down at Coyote. "Fox?" he said. "Why, Fox went home, I suppose. What did you do with your hair, Coyote?"Coyote didn't answer. He just sat down by the foot of the rock and with his snout up in the air waited for Raven to drop a few kernels of corn."I'll get Fox some other day," he muttered to himself.


The bear and his Indian wife



 This story of the Haidas of Queen Charlotte's Island, British Columbia, was told in 1873 by a Haida named Yak Quahu, who heard it related around the evening fires by the old people of his tribe. Yak Quahu began: "Not long ago, as our old people tell us, the bears were a race of beings less perfect than our fathers. They used to talk, walk upright, and use their paws like hands. When they wanted wives, they were accustomed to steal the daughters of our people."


Quiss-an-kweedass and Kind-a-wuss were a youth and maiden in my native village, she the daughter of one of our chiefs, he the son of one of the common people. Since both were about the same age and had been playmates from youth, their fondness in later years ripened into a love so strong that they seemed to live for each other. But while they loved each other, they knew that they could never live as husband and wife, because both were of one crest, the Raven.

By the social laws of the Haidas a mother gives her name and crest to her children, whether Raven, Eagle, Frog, Beaver, or Bear. A man is at liberty to take a wife from any other crest except the one to which he himself belongs.

While the youth and maiden continued to love each other, time passed unnoticed. Life to them seemed a pleasing dream - from which they were awakened when both sets of parents reminded them that the time had come for each to marry someone else. Seeing that these admonitions passed unheeded, their parents resolved to separate them. The lovers were confined in their homes, but they contrived to slip away and meet outside the village. They escaped to the woods, resolved to live on the meanest fare in the mountain forests rather than return to be separated.

In a lonely glen under a shady spruce by a mountain stream, they built a hut, to which they always returned at night. While wandering in search of food they were careful lest they should meet any of their relations.

Thus they lived until the lengthening nights and stormy days reminded them of winter. Quiss-an-kweedass resolved to revisit his home, and to make the journey alone. Kind-a-wuss preferred to remain in the solitude of the forest rather than face her angry relations. He promised, however, to return before nightfall of the fourth day.

When he reached home, his parents welcomed him and asked about Kind- a-wuss and her whereabouts since they departed. He told them all, and when they heard how they lived, and how she had become his wife, their wrath was great. They told him that he would never go back, and they decided to keep him prisoner until she also returned.

When Quiss-an-kweedass could not get away, he urged his people to let him go and get Kind-a-wuss, for she would never return alone. They were unmoved by his appeal.

After a considerable time, he managed to escape. He hastened to his mountain home, hoping to meet Kind-a-wuss, yet fearing that something might be wrong. When he arrived at the place where they had parted, he found by the footprints on the soft earth that she had started to return to their hut. Drawing near it, he listened but heard no sound and saw no trace of her. When he went inside, he was horror-stricken to find that she had not been there since he left. Where was she? Had she lost her way?

Hoping to find some clue, he searched the hut, looked up and down the stream, went through the timber up to the mountains, calling her by name as he went along: "Kind-a-wuss, Kind-a-wuss, where are you? Kind-a-wuss, come to me; I am your own Quiss-an-kweedass. Do you hear me, Kind-a-wuss?" To these appeals the mountain echoes answered, Kind-a-wuss.

After searching for days, feeling sorrowful and angry, he turned homeward, grieving for the dear one whom he had lost, and angry with his parents, whom he blamed for his misfortune.

Once there, he told the villagers of his trouble and claimed their assistance. Many responded, among them the two fathers, one anxious for his daughter's safety, the other disturbed because he had detained his son.

Early on the morning of the third day after Quiss-an-kweedass arrived, he led a party out for a final search to try and find her, dead or alive. But after ten days, during which they discovered nothing except a place where traces of a struggle were visible, they abandoned the effort.

As weeks gave place to months and months to years, Kind-a-wuss seemed to have been forgotten. She was seldom mentioned, or was referred to only as the girl who was lost and never found. Yet her lover never forgot; he believed her still alive and did all in his power to find her. Having failed so often, he thought he would visit a medicine man, or *skaga*, who was clairvoyant.

The *skaga* asked Quiss-an-kweedass if he had anything that the maiden had worn. He gave a part of her clothing to the *skaga*, who took it in his hand and said: "I see a young woman lying on the ground; she seems to be asleep. It is Kind-a-wuss. There is something in the bushes, coming toward her. It is a large bear. He takes hold of her; she tries to get away but cannot. He takes her with him, a long way off. I see a lake. They reach it and stop at a large cedar tree. She lives in the tree with the bear. I see two children, boys, that she has had by the bear. If you go to the lake and find the tree, you will discover them all there."

Quiss-an-kweedasslost no time in getting together a second party led by the *skaga*, who soon found the lake and then the tree. There they halted to consider what it was best to do. It was agreed that Quiss- an-kweedass should call her by name before venturing up a sort of stepladder which leaned against the tree. After he called her several times, she looked out and said:"Where do you come from? And who are you?""I am Quiss-an-kweedass," said he. "I have sought long years for you. Now that I have found you, I mean to take you home. Will you go?" "I cannot go with you until my husband, the chief of bears, returns."

After a little conversation, she consented to come down among them; and when they had her in their power, they hastily carried her off home.

Her parents were glad to have their lost child, and Quiss-an- kweedass was overjoyed to recover his loved one. Although she was at home and kindly welcomed, she was worried for her two sons and wished to return for them. This her friends would not allow, though they offered to go and fetch them. She replied that their father would not let them go. "But," said she, "there is a way you might get them."

She explained that the bear had made up a song for her, and if they would go to the tree and sing it, the bear chief would give them whatever they wished.

After learning the song, a party went to the tree and began to sing. As soon as the bear heard the song he came down, thinking that Kind-a- wuss had returned. When he saw that she was not there, he was upset and refused to let the children go. When the party threatened to take them by force, however, he agreed to send them to their mother.

Kind-a-wuss told the following story of how she had fallen into the power of the bear. After she had parted from Quiss-an-kweedass and turned back toward the hut, she had not gone far before she felt tired and sick at heart for her lover. Deciding to rest a little, she lay down in a dry, shady place and fell asleep. There the bear found her, took her and carried her to his home near the lake. As the entrance to his house was high above the ground, he had a sort of stepladder whereby he could get easily up and down. He sent some of his tribe to gather soft moss to make her a bed.

She used to wonder why no one came to look for her; and when the bear saw her downhearted, he would do all in his power to cheer her up. As the years passed and none of her relations nor her lover came near her, she began to feel at home in the bear's tree house. By the time the search party arrived, she had given up all hope of being found. The bear tried to make her comfortable and please her. He composed a song which to this day is known among the children of the Haidas as the Song of the Bears. I have heard it sung many times. In 1888 an old aquaintance gave me the words:

I have taken a fair maid from her Haida friends as my wife.I hope her relatives won't come and carry her away from me.I will be kind to her.I will give her berries from the hill and roots from the ground.I will do all I can to please her.For her I made this song, and for her I sing it.


This is the Song of the Bears, and whoever can sing it has their lasting friendship. Many people learned it from Kind-a-wuss, who never went again to live with the bear. Out of consideration for her, as well as for the hardships that the lovers had suffered, they were allowed to live as man and wife.

As for the two sons, Soo-gaot and Cun-what, they showed different dispositions as they grew up. Soo-gaot stayed with his mother's people, while the other returned to his father and lived and died among the bears. Soo-gaot, marrying a girl belonging to his parental tribe, reared a family from whom many of his people claim to be descended. The direct descendant of Soo-gaotis a pretty girl, the offspring of a Haida mother and Kanaku father, who inherits all the family belongings, the savings of many generations.

The small brook which flowed by the mountain home of Quiss-an-kweedass and Kind-a- wuss grew to be a large stream, up which large quantities of salmon run in season. That stream is in the family to this day, and out of it they catch their food.


Basket Woman, Mother of the Stars

Back in the beginning of time, when all things were being created, First Man lived in a forest of tall pine trees. One day while on a hunting trip, he discovered a small lodge. Next to the lodge was a tiny cornfield. "I wonder who lives here", he thought

The next day, First Man brought his wife, First Woman, through the forest to see the lodge. As they came near, a little old woman came out to greet them. "I am basket woman,or Moon, the mother of the stars. I lured you here." Then she invited her visitors inside. Around a small fire sat four old men: Wind, Cloud, Lightning and Thunder.

The lodge was filled with Moon's daughters. Soon the girls began to sing and dance.Moon's daughters told First Man to watch and listen very carefully so he could teach the sacred songs and dances to others.After the singing and dancing, Basket Woman's Daughters taught First Man and First Woman ceremonies and games.

Evening Star danced in the west and held a basket representing the moon. The basket was made of willow reeds held together with mud, for the earth is filled with trees.Four daughters of Black Star were also there they danced and moved toward the west and each placed what she carried in Evening Star's basket two swan necks and two fawn skins, These represented the four gods in the west.

The basket woman's daughters taught First Man and First Woman a game.They gave them the Moon basket, plum seeds which represented the stars, and twelve sticks which are the circle of chiefs in the sky. They used the sticks as counters.

All this they taught First Man and First Woman and reminded them that Tirawahat sent the stars to the earth in a moon-basket to teach these first two everything that people were to do.

When First Man and First Woman had learned all they should, their neighbors form the lodge jumped into their basket and flew away up to the sky to return to their places


Arrow Boy



Arrow Boy, the wonderful boy, gives a magic performance still enacted during Sioux Yuwipi ceremonies, in which the medicine man is tied up with a rawhide thong and covered with a star blanket (formerly a buffalo robe) while eerie lights flicker and invisible rattles and strange voices are heard. The pottery-making Pueblos have another version of this tale that they call the legend of the Water- Olla Boy.



After the Cheyenne had received their corn, and while they were still in the north, a young man and woman of the tribe were married. The woman became pregnant and carried her child in the womb for four years. The people watched with great interest to see what would happen, and when the woman gave birth to a beautiful boy in the fourth year, they regarded him as supernatural. Before long the woman and her husband died, and the boy was taken in by his grandmother, who lived alone.

He learned to walk and talk very quickly. He was given a buffalo calf robe and immediately turned it inside out so that the hair side was outward, the way medicine men wore it. Among the Cheyenne there were certain medicine men of extraordinary wisdom and supernatural powers. Sometimes they would come together and put up a lodge. Sitting in a large circle, they chanted and went through curious rituals, after which each man rose and performed wonders before the crowd.

One of these magic dances were held when the boy was about ten. He made his grandmother ask if he could take part, and the medicine men let him enter the lodge. "Where do you want to live?" the chief of the medicine men asked, meaning "Where do you want to sit?"

Without ceremony the boy took his seat beside the chief. To the man who had ushered him in, the child gave directions to paint his body red and draw black rings around his face, wrists, and ankles. The performance began at one end of the circle. When the boy's turn came, he told the people what he was going to do. He used sweet grass to burn incense. Then he passed his buffalo sinew bowstring east, south, west, and north through the smoke. He asked two men to assist him and told them to tie his bowstring around his neck, cover his body with his robe, and pull at the ends of the string.

They pulled with all their might, but they could not move him. He told them to pull harder, and as they tugged at the string, his head was severed. It rolled out from under the robe, and the men put it back. Next the men lifted the robe up. Instead of the boy, a very old man was sitting in his place. They covered the old man with the robe and pulled it away again, this time revealing a pile of human bones with a skull. A third time they placed the robe over the bones and lifted it. Nothing at all was there. But when for a fourth time they spread the robe over the empty space and removed it, the wonderful boy sat in his place as if nothing had happened.

After the magic dance, the Cheyenne moved their camp to hunt buffalo. When a kill had been made, the wonderful boy led a crowd of boys who went hunting for calves that might return to the place where they last saw their mothers. The boys found five or six calves, surrounded them, and killed a two-year-old with their arrows. They began to skin it very carefully with bone knives, keeping the hide of the head intact and leaving the hooves on, because the wonderful boy wanted the skin for a robe.

While they worked, a man driving a dog team approached them. It was Young Wolf, head chief of the tribe, who had come to the killing ground to gather what bones had been left. He said, "My children have favored me at last! I'll take charge of this buffalo; you boys go on off."

The children obeyed, except for the wonderful boy, who kept skinning as he explained that he wanted only the hide for a robe. The chief pushed the wonderful boy aside, but the boy returned and resumed skinning. Then the chief jerked the boy away and threw him down. The boy got up and continued his work. Pretending that he was skinning one of the hind legs, he cut the leg off at the knee and left the hoof on.

When the chief shouldered the boy out of the way and took over the work, the wonderful boy struck him on the back of the head with the buffalo leg. The chief fell dead. The boys ran to the camp and told the story, which caused great excitement. The warriors assembled and decided to kill the wonderful boy.

They went out to look for him near the body of their chief, but the boy had returned to camp. He was sitting in his grandmother's lodge while she cooked food for him in an earthen pot, when suddenly the whole tipi was raised by the warriors. Quickly the wonderful boy kicked the pot over, sending the contents into the fire. As the smoke billowed up, the boy rose with it. The old woman was left sitting alone. The warriors looked around and saw the boy about a quarter of a mile away, walking off toward the east. They ran after him but could not seem to draw closer. Four times they chased him with no success, and then gave up.

People became afraid of the wonderful boy. Still, they looked for him everyday and at last saw him on top of a nearby hill. The whole camp gathered to watch as he appeared on the summit five times, each time in a different dress. First he came as a Red Shield warrior in a headdress made out of buffalo skin. He had horns, a spear, a red shield. and two buffalo tails tied to each arm. The second time he was a Coyote warrior, with his body painted black and yellow and with two eagle feathers sticking up on his head. The third time he appeared as a Dog Men warrior wearing a feathered headdress and carrying an eagle-bone whistle, a rattle of buffalo hoof, and a bow and arrows. The fourth time he was a Hoof Rattle warrior. His body was painted, and he had a rattle to sing by and a spear about eight feet long, with a crook at one end and the shaft at the other end bent in a semicircle. The fifth time his body was painted white, and on his forehead he wore a white owl skin.

After this the wonderful boy disappeared entirely. No one knew where he went, people thought him dead, and he was soon forgotten, for the buffalo disappeared and famine came to the Cheyenne. During this time the wonderful boy traveled alone into the highest ranges of the mountains. As he drew near a certain peak, a door opened in the mountain slope.

(read "The Gold Of The Gods" by Erich Von Daniken, - such door actually exists! - Even though Von Daniken talks a lot of crap desperately trying to prove that "aliens" exist, nevertheless - his archeological discoveries are still rocking the many foundations of what we have held to be "world history", and completely tears it to pieces,.. but you have to be strong minded enough to ignore his mad ramblings and read on! Might this also be the reference made by the Sioux as to where the buffalo disappeared when they "went inside a mountain"? Note that almost ALL tribes have legends of a mountain or mountains with a "door" in it - that leads to other places. It, and some of the connecting tunnels - some of which are literally HUNDREDS of miles long, extend underground to various places all over South America, and may also be the place to which Moctezuma alluded, when he told his people to take the remaining gold to other lands by going "inside the mountains", after the Spanish broke their promises, and then later killed him,... they never did solve the mystery though, of where such enormously huge quantities of gold disappeared to in such a short time!!!).

He passed through into the earth, and the opening closed after him. There inside the mountain he found a large circle of men. Each represented a tribe and was seated beneath that tribe's bundle.

They welcomed the wonderful boy and pointed out the one empty place under a bundle wrapped in fox skin. "If you take this seat, the bundle will be yours to carry back to the Cheyenne," the head man said. "But first you will remain here four years, receiving instruction in order to become your tribe's prophet and counselor." The wonderful boy accepted the bundle, and all the men gave thanks. When his turn came to perform the bundle ceremony, they took it down and showed him its sacred ceremonies, songs, and four medicine arrows, each representing certain powers.

Then for four years under the mountain peak, they taught him prophecies, magic, and ceremonies for warfare and hunting. Meanwhile the Cheyenne were weak with hunger, threatened by starvation. All the animals had died, and the people ate herbs.

One day as the tribe was traveling in search of food, five children lagged behind to look for herbs and mushrooms. Suddenly the wonderful boy, now a young man bearing the name of Arrow Boy, appeared before them. "My poor children, throw away those mushrooms," he said. "It is I who brought famine among you, for I was angry with your people when they drove me from their camp. I have returned to provide for you; you shall not hunger in the future. Go and gather some dried buffalo bones, and I will feed you."

The children ran away and picked up buffalo bones, and the wonderful boy, Arrow Boy, made a few passes that turned them into fresh meat. He fed the children with fat, marrow, liver, and other strengthening parts of the buffalo. When they had eaten all they wanted, he gave them fat and meat.

"Take this to your people," he said. "Tell them that I, Motzeyouf, Arrow Boy, have returned." Though the boys ran to the camp, Motzeyouf used magic to reach it first. He entered the lodge of his uncle and lay down to rest, for he was tired. The uncle and his wife were sitting just outside, but they did not see Arrow Boy pass by. The boys arrived in camp with their tale, which created great excitement. The uncle's wife went into the lodge to get a pipe, and it was then that she saw Arrow Boy lying covered with a buffalo robe. The robe, and his shirt, leggings, and his moccasins, all were painted red. Guessing that he was Motzeyouf, the men went into the lodge, asked the stranger to sit up, and cried over him.

They saw his bundle, and knowing that he had power, they asked him what they should do. Motzeyouf told the Cheyenne to camp in a circle and set up a large tipi in the center. When this had been done, he called all the medicine men to bring their rattles and pipes. Then he went into the tipi and sang the sacred songs that he had learned. It was night before he came to the song about the fourth arrow.

In the darkness the buffalo returned with a roar like thunder. The frightened Cheyenne went in to Arrow Boy and asked him what to do. "Go and sleep," he said, "for the buffalo, your food, has returned to you." The roar of the buffalo continued through the night as long as he sang. The next morning the land was covered with buffalo, and the people went out and killed all they wanted. From that time forth, owing to the medicine arrows, the Cheyenne had plenty to eat and great powers.




Apache Chief punishes his wife


The Yellow House People were traveling. They stopped by a lake, and to reach the deep water they put down a buffalo head to step on. The chief's wife, who was a good-looking woman, picked up her basket and went to fetch some water. When she came to the lake she looked at the head and said, "My father, what a handsome man you were! I would like to have seen you alive. What a pity you're being trampled in this mud!"

As she finished speaking, up sprang a big white buffalo. He said, "I'm the man you speak of. I am White Buffalo Chief. I want to take you with me. Sit on my head between my horns!" She left her water basket right there, and climbed up.

The sun was going down, and the chief's wife did not come home. "Something has happened," he said. "I should go and see." When he got to the lake, he found the basket, and looking around, saw his wife's track and the track of a big buffalo leading to the east. He said, "The buffalo head has taken my wife!" He went back to his camp and for many days made arrows. When he had enough, he set out to find his wife.

As he walked, he nearly stepped on the house of Spider Old Woman. She said, "Sho! sho! sho! My grandchild, don't step on me! Grandchild, you are Apache-Chief-Living-Happily; what are you doing around here?" "Grandmother, I am looking for my wife. Buffalo Chief took her away. Can you help me?" "He is a powerful person, but I will give you medicine. Go now to Gopher Old Woman."

He went along, and on the plain he came to Gopher's house. Said Gopher Old Woman, "What are you doing around here? You are Apache-Chief-Living-Happily. Why are you here?" "Yes, grandmother, I was living happily when my wife went to get water. Buffalo stole her. I am going after her, and I would like to ask you for help."

Gopher Old Woman said, "My grandson, your wife now has as husband a powerful man. He is White Buffalo Chief. She is the tribe's female in- law, and when they go to sleep, she is in the middle and they lie close around her. Her dress is trimmed with elk teeth, and it makes such a noise that it will be difficult to get her out. You go to the edge of where they lie, and I will do the rest."

Apache Chief came to the buffalo territory and hid to watch them. White Buffalo Chief had the stolen wife dancing, and the buffalo sang:

Ya he a heYa he iya heYa he e yaHe ya hina heHina ye neHe mah ne!

The Apache crept near the dance and spat out the medicine Spider Old Woman had given, and all the buffalo went sleep. Gopher Old Woman burrowed underground to the girl's ear and said, "I have come for you. Apache-Chief-Living-Happily is waiting outside the herd."

The girl said, "My present husband is a powerful man. My dress is made of elk teeth, and it makes such a noise that it will wake my husband." Gopher told her to gather the dress up under her arms. Then Gopher led the way, and they slipped through the group of sleeping buffalo.

Her husband was waiting. "I have come for you," he said, "You are my wife and I want to take you back." And she told him they must hurry to a safe place.

The plain was large. As they came to three cottonwood trees, they could feel the earth trembling. White Buffalo had waked up and was shouting to his clan, "Someone took my wife!" The herd followed the track toward the trees.

Apache Chief said to the first cottonwood, "Brother, the buffalo are coming. I want you to hide us." The tree said, "Go to your next brother! I am old and soft." He went to the next tree. "Brother, the buffalo are coming. I want you to hide us!" The tree said, "Go to your next brother." He went to the third tree, a young tree with one branch. "Apache Chief," it said, "come up into my branches and I will help you."

After they were safely up, the wife said she had to urinate. Apache Chief folded up his buffalo hide and told her to urinate on it, but her water leaked through. The buffalo were passing, the dust was rising, and the earth was trembling. In the rear of the pack were a shabby old buffalo and a small one. As they came under the tree, the little buffalo said, "Grandfather, I can smell the water of our daughter-in-law." They looked up and saw the man and woman in the tree.

The old buffalo said, "Grandchild, you are fast. Run on and tell the first one you reach, and each will tell the next one." Soon the whole herd had turned back. Each one in succession butted the tree, and Apache Chief tried to shoot them.

Then White Buffalo Chief took a running start and crashed against the tree. The young cottonwood was nearly down, and Apache Chief could not kill White Buffalo Chief.

Crow was calling above them, "Kaw, kaw, kaw!" Apache Chief said angrily to Crow, "Why are you calling out when I am in such a bad way?" "I came to tell you to shoot him in the anus. That's where his life is."

So the Apache Chief shot White Buffalo Chief in the anus and killed him.

He and his wife came from the tree, and he started to butcher the buffalo beside a little fire. The tears ran down her cheek. "Are you crying because I'm butchering White Buffalo?" "No, I'm crying from the smoke." Apache Chief kept on butchering. He looked at her again and said, "You are crying!" "No, it's just the smoke." He stared at her. "You are crying! After all our trouble, you still want this man! Now you die with him!" And he took his bow and arrow and shot her. "I am Apache Chief, chief of a roaming tribe," he said. "I will wander over these plains watching the earth, and if any woman leaves her husband, what I have done to my wife may be done to her."


Ancient One

Native American Lore, Told by Bearwalker


Ancient One sat in the shade of his tree in front of his cave. Red People came to him and he said to Red People, "Tell me your vision." And Red People answered, "The elders have told us to pray in this manner, and that manner, and it is important that only we pray as we have been taught for this has been handed down to us by the elders." "Hmmmm," said the Ancient One. Then Black People came to him and he said to Black People, "Tell me your vision." And Black People answered, "Our mothers have said to go to this building and that building and pray in this manner and that manner. And our fathers have said to bow in this manner and that manner when we pray. And it is important that we do only this when we pray." "Hmmmm," said the Ancient One. Then Yellow People came to him and he said to Yellow People, "Tell me your vision." And Yellow People answered, "Our teachers have told us to sit in this manner and that manner and to say this thing and that thing when we pray. And it is important that we do only this when we pray." "Hmmmm," said the Ancient One. Then White People came to him and he said to White People, "Tell me your vision." And White People answered, "Our Book has told us to pray in this way and that way and to do this thing and that thing, and it is very important that we do this when we pray." "Hmmmm," said the Ancient One. Then Ancient One spoke to the Earth and said, "Have you given the people a vision?" And the Earth said, "Yes, a special gift for each one, but the people were so busy speaking and arguing about which way is right they could not see the gift I gave each one of them." And the Ancient One asked same question of Water and Fire and Air and got the same answer. Then Ancient One asked Animal, and Bird, and Insect, and Tree, and Flower, and Sky, and Moon, and Sun, and Stars, and all of the other Spirits and each told him the same. Ancient One thought this was very sad. He called Red People, Black People, Yellow People, and White People to him and said to them. "The ways taught to you by your Elders, and your Mothers and Fathers, and Teachers, and Books are sacred. It is good that you respect those ways, for they are the ways of your ancestors. But the ancestors no longer walk on the Face of the Earth Mother. You have forgotten your own Vision. Your Vision is right for you but no one else. Now each of you must pray for your own Visions, and be still enough to see them, so you can follow the way of the heart. It is a hard way. It is a good way.


Adventures of Great Rabbit


Wildcat is mean and ferocious. He has a short tail and big, long, sharp fangs, and his favourite food is rabbit. One day when Wildcat was hungry, he said to himself: "I'm going to catch and eat Mahtigwess, Great Rabbit, himself. He's plump and smart, and nothing less will do for my dinner.". So he went hunting for Great Rabbit.

Now, Great Rabbit can sense what others are thinking from a long way off, so he already knew that Wildcat was after him. He made up his mind that he would use his magical power against Wildcat's strength. He picked up a handful of woodchips, threw them ahead of himself, and jumped after them, and because Great Rabbit is m'te'oulin, every jump was a mile. Jumping that far, of course, he left very few tracks to follow.

Wildcat swore a mighty oath that he would catch Great Rabbit, that he would find him even if Mahtigwess had fled to the end of the world. At that time Wildcat had a beautiful long tail, and he swore by it: "Let my tail fall off - may I have just a little stump for a tail - if I fail to catch Great Rabbit!". After a mile he found Rabbit's tracks. After another mile he found some more tracks. Wildcat was not altogether without magic either, and he was perservering. So mile by mile, he kept on Rabbit's trail.

In fact, Wildcat was drawing closer and closer. It grew dark and Great Rabbit grew tired. He was on a wide, empty plain of snow, and there was nothing to hide behind except a little spruce tree. He stomped on the snow and made himself a seat and bed of spruce boughs.

When Wildcat came to that spot, he found a fine, big wigwam and stuck his head through the door. Sitting inside was an old, gray-haired chief, solemn and mighty. The only strange thing about him was that he had two long ears standing up at each side of his head. "Great Chief," said Wildcat, "have you by any chance seen a biggish rabbit running like mad?" "Rabbits? Why of course, there are hundreds, thousands of rabbits hereabouts, but what's the hurry? It's late and you must be tired. If you want to hunt rabbits, start in the morning after a good night's sleep. I'm a lonely man and enjoy the company of a respected personage like you. Stay overnight; I have a fine rabbit stew cooking here."

Wildcat was flattered. "Big Chief, I am honored," he said. He ate a whole kettle full of tasty rabbit stew and then fell asleep before the roaring fire. Wildcat awoke early because he was freezing. He found himself alone in the midst of a huge snowfield. Nothing was there, no wigwam, no fire, no old chief; all he could see were a few little spruce boughs. It had been a dream, an illusion created by Great Rabbit's magic. Even the stew had been an illusion, and Wildcat was ravenous. Shivering in the icy wind, Wildcat howled: "Rabbit has tricked me again, but I'll get even with him. By my tail, I swear I'll catch, kill, and eat him!"

Again Great Rabbit travelled with his mile-wide jumps, and again Wildcat followed closely. At nightfall Rabbit said to himself: "Time to rest and conjure something up." This time he trampled down a large area and spread many pine boughs around. When Wildcat arrived, he found a large village full of busy people, though of what tribe he couldn't tell. He also saw a big wooden church painted white, the kind the French Jesuits were putting up among some tribes. Wildcat went up to a young man who was about to enter the church. "Friend, have you seen a biggish rabbit hereabouts, running away?" "Quiet," said the young man, "we're having a prayer meeting. Wait until the sermon is over."

The young man went into the church, and Wildcat followed him. There were lots of people sitting and listening to a gray-haired preacher. The only strange thing was the two long ears sticking up at each side of the priest's cap. He was preaching a very, very long sermon about the wickedness of ferocious wild beasts who tear up victims with their big, sharp fangs and then devour them. "Such savage fiends will be punished for their sins," said this preacher over and over.

Wildcat didn't like the long sermon, but he had to wait all the same. When the preaching was over at last, he went up to the priest with the long ears and asked: "Sir, have you seen a very sacred, biggish rabbit hereabouts?" "Rabbits!" exclaimed the preacher. "We have a wet, foggy cedar swamp nearby with thousands of rabbits." "I don't mean just any rabbit; I'm speaking of Great Rabbit." "Of him I know nothing, friend. But over there in that big wigwam lives the wise old chief, the Sagamore. Go and ask him; he knows everything."

Wildcat went to the wigwam and found the Sagamore, an imposing figure, gray-haired like the preacher, with long white locks sticking up on each side of his head. "Young man," said the Sagamore gravely, "what can I do for you?" "I'm looking for the biggish Great Rabbit." "Ah! Him! He's hard to find and hard to catch. Tonight it's too late, but tomorrow I'll help you. Sit down, dear man. My daughters will give you a fine supper."

The Sagamore's daughters were beautiful. They brought Wildcat many large wooden bowls of the choicest food, and he ate it all up, because by now he was very hungry. The warmth of the fire and his full stomach made him drowsy, and the Sagamore's daughters brought him a thick white bearskin to sleep on. "You people really know how to treat a guest." said Wildcat as he fell asleep.

When he awoke, he found himself in a dismal, wet, foggy cedar swamp. Nothing was there except mud and icy slush and a lot of rabbit tracks. There was no village, no church, no wigwam, no Sagamore, no beautiful daughters. They had all been a mirage conjured up by Great Rabbit. The fine food had been a mirage too, and Wildcat's stomach was growling. He was ankle-deep in the freezing swamp. The fog was so thick he could hardly see anything. Enraged, he vowed to find and kill Great Rabbit even if he should die in the attempt. He swore by his tail, his teeth, his claws - by everything dear to him. Then he hastened on.

That night Wildcat came to a big longhouse. Inside, it was like a great hall, and it was full of people. On a high seat sat the chief, who wore two long white feathers at each side of his head. This venerable leader also had beautiful daughters who fed all comers, for Wildcat had stumbled into the midst of a great feast. Exhausted and panting, he gasped: "Has any one seen the bi-big- biggish G-G-Great Ra-Rab-Rabbit?" "Later, friend," said the chief with the two white feathers. "We are feasting, dancing, singing. You seem exhausted, poor man! Sit down; catch your breath. Rest. Eat."

Wildcat sat down. The people were having a singing contest, and chief on his high seat pointed at Wildcat and said, "Our guest here looks like a fine singer. Perhaps he will honor us with a song." Wild cat was flattered. He arose and sang:


Rabbits! How I hate them! How I despise them! How I laugh at them! How I kill them! How I scalp them! How I eat them!


"A truly wonderful song," said the chief. "I must reward you for it. Here's what I give you." And with that the chief jumped up from his high seat, jumped over Wildcat's head, struck him a blow from his tomahawk, kept on jumping with mile-long leaps - and all was gone. The longhouse, the hall, the people, the daughters: none remained. Once more Wildcat found himself alone in the middle of nowhere, worse off than ever, for he had a gash in his scalp where Great Rabbit had hit him with the tomahawk. His feet were sore, his stomach empty. He could hardly crawl. But he was more infuriated than ever. "I'll kill him!" he growled, "I'll give my life! And the tricks are over; he won't fool me again!"

That night Wildcat came to two beautiful wigwams. In the first was a young woman, obviously a chief's daughter. In the other was someone whom Wildcat took for her father, an elderly, gray-haired, gentle- looking man with two scalp locks sticking up at the sides of his head. "Come in, come in, poor man," said the gray-haired host. "You're wounded! My daughter will wash and cure that cut. And we must build up your strength. I have a fine broth here and a pitcher full of wine, the drink the Frenchmen make. It has great restorative powers."

But Wildcat was suspicious. "If this is Great Rabbit in disguise again, he won't fool me," he promised himself. "Dear sir," said Wildcat, "I hesitate to mention it, but the two scalp locks sticking up at the sides of your head look very much like rabbit's ears." "Rabbit's ears? How funny!" said the old man. "Know, friend, that in our tribe we all wear our scalp locks this way." "Ah," said Wildcat, "but your nose is split exactly like a rabbit's nose." "Don't remind me, friend. Some weeks ago I was hammering wampum beads, and the stone I was using to pound them on broke in half. A sharp flew up and split my nose - a great misfortune, because it does disfigure me." "It does indeed. A pity. But why are your soles so yellow, like a rabbit's soles?" "Oh, that's nothing. I prepared some tobacco yesterday, and the juice stained my palms yellow." Then Wildcat said to himself: "This man is no rabbit."

The old man called to his daughter, who washed Wildcat's wound, put a healing salve into it, and bathed his face. Then the old man gave him a wonderfully strengthening broth and a large pitcher of sweet wine. "This wine is really good," said Wildcat, "the first I ever tasted." "Yes, these white people, these Frenchmen, are very clever at making good things to drink."

When Wildcat awoke, he found, of course, that he had been tricked again. The food he had eaten was rabbit pellets, the wine was stale water in a half-wilted pitcher plant. Now it was only his great hatred that kept Wildcat going, but go he did, like a streak, on Rabbit's tail.

Mahtigwess, Great Rabbit, had only enough m'te'oulin, enough magic power, left for one more trick. So he said to himself: "This time I'd better make it good!" Great Rabbit came to a big lake and threw a chip of wood into the water. Immediately it turned into a towering ship, the kind white men build, with tall sides, three masts, white sails, and colored flags. That ship was pierced on each side with three rows of heavy cannon.

When Wildcat arrived at this lake, he saw the ship with its crew. On deck was the captain, a gray-haired man with a large, gold- trimmed, cocked hat that had fluffy white plumes right and left. "Rabbit!" cried Wildcat, "I know you! You're no French captain; you're Great Rabbit. I know you, Mahtigwess! I am the mighty Wildcat, and I'm coming to scalp and kill you now!" And with that, Wildcat jumped into the lake and swam toward the ship. Then the captain, who indeed was Mahtigwess, the Great Rabbit, ordered his men to fire their muskets and the three rows of heavy cannon. Bullets went whistling by Wildcat; cannonballs flew toward him; the whole world was spitting thunder and fire.

Wildcat had never before faced white men's firearms; they were entirely new to him. It didn't matter that the ship, cannon, muskets, cannon-balls, bullets, fire, noise, and smoke were merely illusions conjured up by Rabbit. To Wildcat they were real, and he was scared to death. He swam back to shore and ran away. And if he hasn't died, he is running still.

And yes, as Wildcat had sworn by his tail to catch and kill Rabbit, his tail fell off, and ever since then this kind of big wildcat has a short, stumpy tail and is called a bobcat.


A gust of wind


This story has many variations. The following version is notable because Stone Boy, (Brule legend) sometimes conceived when his mother swallows a pebble, appears in creation legends from several Plains tribes.




Before there was a man, two women, an old one and her daughter, were the only humans on earth. The old woman had not needed a man in order to conceive. Ahki, the earth, also was like a woman - female - but not as she is now, because trees and many animals had not yet been made.

Well, the young woman, the daughter, took her basket out one day to go berrying. She had gathered enough and was returning home when a sudden gust of wind lifted her buckskin dress up high, baring her body. Geesis, the sun, shone on that spot for a short moment and entered the body of the young woman, though she hardly noticed it. She was aware of the gust of wind but paid no attention.

Time passed. The young woman said to the old one: "I don't know what's wrong with me, but something is."

More time passed. The young woman's belly grew bigger, and she said: "Something is moving inside me. What can it be?" "When you were going berrying, did you meet anyone?" The old woman asked. "I met nobody. The only thing that happened was a big gust of wind which lifted my buckskin dress. the sun was shining." The old woman said: "I think you're going to have a child. Geesis, the sun, is the only one who could have done it, so you will be the mother of a sun child."

The young woman gave birth to two boys, both *manitos*, - supernaturals. They were the first human males on this earth - Geesis's sons, sons of the sun.

The young mother made cradleboards and put the twins in these, hanging them up or carrying them on her back, but never letting the babies touch the earth. Why didn't she? Did the Old Woman tell her not to? Nobody knows. If she had put the cradleboards on the ground, the babies would have walked upright from the moment of their birth, like deer babies. but because their mother would not let them touch earth for some months, it now takes human babies a year or so to walk. It was that young woman's fault.

One of the twins was Stone Boy, a rock. He said: "Put me in the fire and heat me up until I glow red hot." They did, and he said: "Now pour cold water over me." They did this also. That was the first sweat bath.

The other boy, named Wene-boozhoo, looked like all human boys. He became mighty and could do anything; he even talked to the animals and gave them their names.




A contest for wives


At Amatsushe they were living; Old Coyote and Old Coyote Woman lived on one side of the hill and Old Beaver and Old Beaver Woman lived on the other. They visited each other every night. One night it was snowing, deep, and Old Coyote said to his wife, "I shall go to Old Brother Beaver to invite him to go hunting, and to make plans for exchanging our wives."

When Coyote got there, he called, "Hello." Beaver answered, "Hello, come in and sit down." They sat together by the fireplace to smoke. Coyote said, "I came to tell you we are to go hunting. If we kill any rabbits we'll bring them to our wives. I'll bring mine to your wife, and you can bring yours to mine." "All right," Old Beaver agreed. "You go first," said Coyote. "No, you go first. This is your invitation; you invited me," Beaver insisted. "All right, I shall go early in the morning." Coyote said to Old Beaver Woman, "In the morning I am going hunting for you." "All right. I shall sing the song so that you will kill many rabbits." Old Beaver Woman started to fix the supper. She wanted it ready for his return. Old Coyote was gone for the whole day. It was evening, and he did not come home at all. Sitting near the fireplace, Old Beaver Woman waited and waited. She started to sing her song: "Old Coyote, Old Coyote, come sleep with me, Come have intercourse with me, Ai-ooai-oo." Old Beaver said, "What are you singing about? He won't kill anything, for he isn't any hunter."

Coyote killed nothing, and Beaver Woman waited and waited but Coyote never came.

Next day it was Old Beaver's turn to go hunting. He went to tell Old Coyote Woman that she must wait for him, for he was going to hunt rabbits for her. "All right," she said.

And he killed so many that he could hardly carry them. In the morning Beaver came into Coyote's house and said, "Old Coyote Woman, here are the rabbits." She took them and said, "Thank you, thank you, Old Man Beaver." They went straight into the inner room, and Old Man Coyote was left by himself in the front room. He was very angry. They gave him his supper, and when he had finished, they went in to bed.

Old Man Beaver started to have intercourse with Old Coyote Woman. Old Coyote Woman cried out, and Old Coyote called out, "Old Beaver, don't hurt my wife." Old Coyote Woman answered, "Shut up, Old Man Coyote! It's because I like it that I'm crying out."

When he had finished, Old Man Beaver came out. He said to Old Coyote, "We won't keep bad feelings against each other; this was your plan. I shall always wait for you at my house whenever you want to visit me." And they were as good neighbors as ever.


A Cheyenne blanket


The Cheyennes, like other Indians, do not speak to each other when they are away from the camp. If a man leaves the village and sits or stands by himself on the top of a hill, it is a sign that he wants to be alone, perhaps to meditate, perhaps to pray. No one speaks to him or goes near him.

There was once a Pawnee boy who went off on the warpath to the Cheyenne camp. Somehow he had obtained a Cheyenne blanket. He came close to the camp, hid himself, and waited.

About the middle of the afternoon he left his hiding place and walked to the top of the hill overlooking the village. He had his Cheyenne blanket wrapped about him and over his head, with only a little hole for his eyes. He stood quietly watching the camp for an hour or two.

Men began coming in from buffalo hunting, some of them leading packhorses loaded with meat. One hunter was riding a horse packed with meat while he led another packhorse and a black spotted horse that was his running horse. Running horses are ridden only on the chase or on war parties, and after being used they are taken down to the river to be carefully washed and groomed.

When the Pawnee boy saw the spotted horse, he knew that this was the one he wanted. The hunter led the animal to his lodge, dismounted and handed the ropes to his women, and went inside.

Then the Pawnee made up his mind what he would do. He started down the hill into the village and went straight to the lodge where the women were unloading the meat.

Walking up to them, he reached out and took the ropes of the spotted horse and one of the packhorses. The women fell back, doubtless thinking that he was one of the owner's relatives come to take the running horse down the to the river. The Pawnee could not speak Cheyenne, but as he turned away he mumbled something, "M-m-m-m-," in a low voice, and then walked toward the river. As soon as he had gone down over the bank and out of sight, he jumped on the spotted horse, rode into the brush, and soon was away with the two animals, stolen out of the Cheyenne camp in broad daylight.


Crow and Hawk

Crow had a nest in which she laid two eggs. For a day or so she sat on the eggs to hatch them, but then she grew tired of this and went off to hunt food for herself. Day after day passed but Crow did not return, and every morning Hawk flew by and saw the eggs with no one there to keep them warm.

One morning Hawk said to herself, "Crow who owns this nest no longer cares for it. Those eggs should not be lying unwarmed. I will sit on them and when they hatch they will be my children."

For many days Hawk sat on the eggs and Crow never came to the nest. Finally the eggs began to hatch. Still no Crow came. Both little ones hatched out and mother Hawk flew about getting food for them. They grew larger and larger until their wings became strong. Then mother Hawk took them off the nest and showed them how to fly.

About this time, Crow remembered her nest and she came back to it. She found the eggs hatched and Hawk taking care of her little ones. Hawk was on the ground, feeding with the young crows.

"Hawk, what do you think you are doing?" cried Crow.

"I am doing nothing wrong," Hawk said.

"You must return these young crows you are leading around."


"Because they are mine," Crow replied.

"To be sure, you laid the eggs," Hawk said, "but you went off and left them. There was no one to sit upon them and keep them warm. I came and sat upon the nest and hatched them. When they were hatched I fed them and now I am showing them how to find their own food. They are mine and I shall not return them to you."

"I shall take them back," Crow threatened.

"I shall not give them up. I have worked for them. Many days I went without food sitting there upon the eggs. In all that time you did not come near your nest. Why is it that now I have done all the work to hatch and raise them you want them back?

Crow looked down at the young ones. "My children," she said, come with me. I am your mother."

But the young ones answered: "We do not know you. Hawk is our mother."

At last, after she saw that she could not make the little crows come with her, Crow said: "Very well, I shall take this matter to Eagle, the King of the Birds, and let him decide. We shall see who has the right to these young crows."

"Good," said Hawk. "I am willing to go and tell the King of the Birds about this."

And so Crow and Hawk and the two young birds went to see Eagle. Crow spoke first. "When I returned to my nest," she said, "I found my eggs hatched and Hawk taking charge of my young ones. I have come to you, the King of the Birds, to ask that Hawk be required to return the Children to me."

"Why did you leave your nest?" Eagle asked Crow.

To this question, Crow gave no reply. She simply bowed her head in silence.

"Very well, Hawk," Eagle said, "how did you find this nest of eggs ?"

"Many times I flew over the nest and found it empty," Hawk replied. "No one came for a long time, and so I said to myself, 'The mother who made this nest can no longer care for these eggs I shall be glad to hatch these little ones.' So I sat on the nest and warmed the eggs until they hatched. Then I went about getting food for the young ones. I worked hard and taught them to fly and to find food for themselves."

"But they are my children," Crow interrupted. "I laid the eggs."

Eagle glared at Crow. "Wait for your turn to speak," he said sternly, and then turned back to Hawk. "Is that all you have to say, Hawk?"

"Yes, I have worked hard to raise my two young ones. Just when they are able to care for themselves, Crow comes back and asks to have them given to her. It is I who went without food for days so as to stay on the nest and keep the eggs warm. The birds are now my little ones. I do not wish to give them up."

Eagle thought a few moments, muttering aloud to himself: "It seems that mother Hawk is not willing to return the young ones to mother Crow. If mother Crow had truly wanted these young ones, why did she leave the nest for so many days, and now is demanding that they be given to her? In truth, Hawk is the mother of the young ones because she went without food while she warmed and hatched them and then flew about searching out their food. So now they are her children."

When she heard this. Crow approached closer to Eagle. "Oh, King of the Birds," she said, "why do you not ask the young ones which mother they will choose to follow? They are old enough to know that they are crows and not hawks."

Eagle nodded his head and turned to the young ones. "Which mother will you choose?" he asked.

Both young Crows answered together: "Hawk is our mother. She is the only mother we know."

"No!" cried Crow. "I am your only mother!"

The young crows then said to her: "You abandoned us in the nest. Hawk hatched us and took care of us and she is our mother."

"It is settled," Eagle declared. "The young ones have chosen Hawk to be their mother. So it shall be."

At this, Crow began to weep.

"It is useless to weep," said Eagle. "You abandoned your nest and it is your own fault that you have lost your children. It is the decision of the King of the Birds that they shall go with mother Hawk."

And so the young crows stayed with Hawk, and Crow lost her children.


Red Shield and Running Wolf

In years past the Sioux and the Crows were enemies, and only through heroic action could a young person of one tribe become the friend or lover of a young person of the other tribe. Such was the story of Red Shield, the daughter of a Sioux chief, and Running Wolf, the son of a Crow warrior.

Red Shield first heard of Running Wolf from a Sioux woman who had been captured by the Crows and then later was permitted to return to her people. This woman had lived as a servant with Running Wolf's family during the time when the boy was growing up.

"He was a lazy boy," the Sioux woman told Red Shield. "His father had to drive him out of bed every morning by rapping his shins with a stick. One morning he scolded the boy very hard and told him that he should be out hunting deer for the family. That morning, as soon as the father left the tepee, Running Wolf came to me and asked if I would make a buckskin mask for him. And so I made him a mask, and he spent the day painting it with white clay and fastening deer horns to it. Before sunrise the next morning he was the first one out of bed. He took his father's gun and knife and rode away on a horse, with two led horses behind him. He went out to a little lake near their village, fastened his horses in the woods, and then went down to a place where animals come to drink. When the sun rose some deer came there, but they did not run away because they thought the boy was a deer. He killed two, loaded them on the led horses, and brought them home just as his father was waking up."

"Was Running Wolf's father pleased by this?" Red Shield asked.

"Oh, yes. He told his son that he had done well, and should divide the venison with their neighbours. But that was not the end of it. The next morning the boy went back to the watering place and returned with two more deer, and the morning after that he did the same." The Sioux woman smiled. "That time his father told him to stop or he would begin to smell like a deer."

"And what did young Running Wolf say to this?"

"He said nothing, but he began sleeping late again, until one morning his father rapped him on the shins and scolded him for being lazy. His father told Running Wolf that he could no longer use the family's horses, that if he wanted a horse to ride he would have to go out and take one from the Nez Perces. That morning, as soon as his father went hunting, Running Wolf came to me and asked if I would make him a new pair of moccasins. I did this for him, and he spent the day decorating them with paint and beads in some special way. At sundown he left the tepee with his gun, not saying a word to anyone. Next morning he returned with twenty horses that he had taken from the Nez Perces."

"His father must have been much pleased by this," said Red Shield.

"Oh, yes, after the boy gave him ten of the horses, the father sang praise songs for him all day. But that was not the end of it. That night Running Wolf went out again, and next morning he brought back forty horses and gave them all to his father. And the next night he captured fifty horses, all of which he gave to his father. And still a fourth night he went and this time he brought back eighty head of horses, giving them all to his father! Oh, I can tell you, Running Wolf's father had a hard time herding all those horses. 'Stop! stop!' he shouted at his son. 'You have listened too well to what I told you.' "

Red Shield laughed. "I think I like this young Running Wolf, even if he is a Crow," she said.

"Oh, but he soon grew up after that," the Sioux woman said. "After his father died, his mother and I made a new tepee for him, and then I was told that I could return to my people. Running Wolf painted his tepee black, tied feathers to the door, and laid war bonnets and other finery around the inside to signify that he intended to become a mighty warrior."

Not long after Red Shield heard these stories about Running Wolf, her father announced that the Sioux would be going out for their summer buffalo hunt. The tribe camped in a narrow valley down which some of their hunters would drive the buffalo while others waited in concealment on either side to kill them as they passed. It was a busy time for Red Shield and the other women, young and old, for they helped in the skinning of the buffalo and then stretched the hides out to dry in the sun.

One afternoon while half the Sioux hunters were out searching for a buffalo herd, an alarm suddenly spread through the camp. "Crow horse thieves are coming! Look to the horses!" As soon as the men drove the horses in, it was the duty of the women and children to guard them while the warriors went out to protect the camp from the Crow raid. Red Shield mounted her spotted pony and joined the other women. Far up the level valley she could see the dust of the oncoming Crows as they raced toward the line of defending Sioux. A moment later she heard the sharp war cries of the contending warriors.

She saw one of the Crow warriors on a black horse break through the Sioux line and come charging toward the horse herd she was helping to guard. Not far behind him, two Sioux warriors galloped in pursuit. As the Crow came nearer she could see that he wore four eagle feathers in his hair. Fastened behind his belt was a streamer of black leather long enough to trail on the ground. His horse's mane and tail were whitened with clay. He carried a black-handled spear decorated with bunches of crow feathers, and this weapon was pointed straight at Red Shield. She held her spotted horse steady, defying the onrushing Crow, and at the last moment he reined in the black horse so that the point of the spear was only an arm's length from her body.

The young Crow's face was painted with streaks of black and white. For a moment he glared at Red Shield, his eyes very bright, and then he threw back his head and laughed. By this time his pursuers had caught up with him. One of the Sioux put an arrow to his bow but missed; then both of them closed in upon the Crow with their war clubs raised, ready to strike.

Dancing his black horse in a circle, the Crow used his spear to knock first one and then the other Sioux off their mounts. His horse pawed the earth, then sprang like a cat into the Sioux horse herd. Before Red Shield or her companions could move, the Crow had cut six horses out of their herd and was chasing them off down the valley.

Angry and frustrated because she could do nothing to stop the daring Crow, Red Shield watched him go. Then the young man turned and waved a farewell to her. Above the pounding hooves she could hear his laughter, and her indignation turned to grudging admiration.

A group of Sioux warriors swept by intent upon pursuit, but Red Shield's father called them back. "Too many of our hunters are away," he said. "We are too few to risk leaving our women and children and the horse herd open to another raid."

"Did you see that Crow!" cried an old Sioux medicine man. "He and his horse are under some powerful magic."

The Sioux woman who had once been a captive among the Crows spoke up from the front of her tepee. "I know that one," she said.

"What name does he go by?" the medicine man asked.

"Yes, who is he?" demanded Red Shield's father.

"Running Wolf, he is called."

Red Shield, who still sat on her spotted horse, whispered to herself: "Running Wolf! I knew he must be Running Wolf"

Not long after that the Sioux returned to their village on the Missouri River. It seemed to all the young men in the tribe that the chief's daughter, Red Shield, had suddenly become a great beauty, and one by one they came by the chief's tepee to ask if she would marry them. Red Shield's father encouraged her to choose one of the suitors for a husband, but she wanted none of them. One evening after she had rejected a handsome young warrior, her father demanded to know why she was so obstinate.

"Because I do not love him!" she cried, and in a fit of anger she threw her supper into the fire.

"If you love someone else," her father said patiently, "then tell me his name."

"I love only Running Wolf," she replied. "I want to marry him."

"You cannot marry Running Wolf He is a Crow, and the Crows are our enemies."

Her father thought that would put an end to it, but days passed without Red Shield saying a word, and she ate so little that she began to grow thin. At last he realized that his daughter was determined to marry Running Wolf or else will herself to die.

"Very well," the chief said, "at least you are a woman of courage. You do not know if Running Wolf wants you for a wife, but you are determined to test him."

The next morning the chief brought around two fine horses, a mule, and some packs filled with moccasins and other presents. He summoned the Sioux woman who had once been a captive of the Crows and told her to go with Red Shield until they found the Crow camp where Running Wolf lived. They started out and at the end of three days they sighted the Crow tepees along a little stream. They rode into a thick wood where they fastened their horses and the pack mule. Red Shield painted herself carefully and dressed in her best clothing. By this time night had fallen, but a full moon was rising above the trees.

"It's time for me to go into the Crow camp," Red Shield said.

"Remember to look for a black tepee," the Sioux woman reminded her. "You will see a bunch of eagle feathers fastened to the end of one of the poles."

"If I don't return," Red Shield whispered, "you will know that Running Wolf does not want me for a wife and that I am a prisoner of the Crows as you once were."

"I will wait for you," the Sioux woman said.

Red Shield walked out of the woods and entered the bright moonlight which flooded the Crow camp. In the middle of the camp she found a black tepee with eagle feathers fastened to the top of one of the poles. No one noticed her as she walked to the open entrance.

Inside some young men were talking and smoking around a campfire. Red Shield was certain that one of them was Running Wolf. She sat down outside the entrance. After a while the young men began to leave, one or two at a time, paying no particular attention to her presence.

Then Running Wolf came out to stretch himself and yawn.

The moonlight was full on his face, and Red Shield felt her heart beat strongly. He saw her then, and said in Crow, "Come in," but Red Shield understood not one word of Crow and she neither answered him nor moved. Running Wolf shrugged and went back inside, and Red Shield heard him say something else. The voice of an old woman responded.

Red Shield arose then and went into the tepee. The fire had died to a few coals and she could see only the shadowy forms of Running Wolf and his mother. She went close to the fire and sat down as though to warm herself.

This time the old woman spoke to her in Crow. "Take off your moccasins and rest." But of course Red Shield did not understand. "Build up the fire so that we can see this young woman," said Running Wolf. His mother placed some dry wood on the coals, and a blaze sprang up to light the inside of the tepee.

"This is not a Crow woman!" cried Running Wolf's mother.

"No," he said. "But I know who she is. Only one time have I seen her but her face has been in my dreams many times since. She is Sioux."

Red Shield raised her head, and made signs to tell them she could not understand what they were saying, but that she had a friend nearby who could speak for her. At last Running Wolf understood, and he followed her across the camp clearing into the thick woods where the Sioux woman was waiting with the horses and mule. Running Wolf remembered the former captive of his boyhood, and when they returned to his tepee the Sioux woman and his mother had a happy reunion.

"Why do you and this daughter of a Sioux chief come into our camp?" the mother asked.

"She is Red Shield," replied the Sioux woman. "She has brought many presents. She has come to marry your son, Running Wolf"

"And what does my son, Running Wolf, have to say to this? To marry one of the enemy?"

Running Wolf looked at Red Shield. "I knew she was beautiful, and she showed courage that day I took horses from the Sioux. Now she has shown more bravery than I would have dared, by coming into the camp of her enemies alone. I want her for my wife. "

While the Sioux woman was bringing in the packs of presents, Running Wolf's mother went through the camp. "Come and look at my son's wife!" she cried. "One of the enemy's children has come to marry him!" All the Crows in camp came to see Red Shield, and all said she was very good-looking and a young woman of great bravery.

Early the next morning the Sioux woman started back on the long journey to the Missouri River to tell the girl's people that she was safe and was now the wife of the Crow warrior, Running Wolf. A few days later Red Shield's father, the Sioux chief, sent two messengers to the Crow chief, telling him that he and many of his relatives were coming to pay the Crows a friendly visit.

For this event the Crows moved their tepees to a larger plain beside a lake, camping in a tight circle so as to leave room for the visitors. The Crow chief told Running Wolf to put his black tepee in the place of honour in the centre. When the Sioux arrived, the Crows surrounded them and watched them put up their tepees. After this was done, Red Shield took Running Wolf to welcome her parents, and they all exchanged many presents. Running Wolf brought several guns and the horses he had taken from the Sioux and gave them to Red Shield's father.

For four days and nights the Sioux camped with the Crows and the tribes danced together every evening. After the Sioux returned to the Missouri River, Running Wolf and Red Shield and several of their friends visited them from time to time, and in the moons of pleasant weather, her Sioux father and mother came to visit their daughter, and later on to see their grandchildren. In both tribes, the young Crow warrior and his Sioux wife were regarded as hero and heroine, and their people lived in peace for a time.


Godasiyo the Woman Chief

At the beginning of time when America was new, a woman chief named Godasiyo ruled over an Indian village beside a large river in the East. In those days all the tribes spoke one language and lived in harmony and peace. Because Godasiyo was a wise and progressive chief, many people came from faraway places to live in her village, and they had no difficulty understanding one another.

At last the village grew so large that half the people lived on the north side of the river, and half on the south side. They spent much time canoeing back and forth to visit, attend dances, and exchange gifts of venison, hides, furs, and dried fruits and berries. The tribal council house was on the south side, which made it necessary for those who lived on the north bank to make frequent canoe trips to consult with their chief. Some complained about this, and to make it easier for everybody to cross the rapid stream, Godasiyo ordered a bridge to be built of saplings and tree limbs carefully fastened together. This bridge brought the tribe close together again, and the people praised Godasiyo for her wisdom.

Not long after this, a white dog appeared in the village, and Godasiyo claimed it for her own. Everywhere the chief went the dog followed her, and the people on the north side of the river became jealous of the animal. They spread stories that the dog was possessed by an evil spirit that would bring harm to the tribe. One day a delegation from the north bank crossed the bridge to the council house and demanded that Godasiyo kill the white dog. When she refused to do so, the delegates returned to their side of the river, and that night they destroyed the bridge.

From that time the people on the north bank and those on the south bank began to distrust each other. The tribe divided into two factions, one renouncing Godasiyo as their chief, the other supporting her. Bad feelings between them grew so deep that Godasiyo foresaw that the next step would surely lead to fighting and war. Hoping to avoid bloodshed, she called all members of the tribe who supported her to a meeting in the council house.

"Our people," she said, "are divided by more than a river. No longer is there goodwill and contentment among us. Not wishing to see brother fight against brother, I propose that those who recognize me as their chief follow me westward up the great river to build a new village."

Almost everyone who attended the council meeting agreed to follow Godasiyo westward. In preparation for the migration, they built many canoes of birch bark. Two young men who had been friendly rivals in canoe races volunteered to construct a special water craft for their chief. With strong poles they fastened two large canoes together and then built a platform which extended over the canoes and the space between them. Upon this platform was a seat for Godasiyo and places to store her clothing, extra leggings, belts, robes, moccasins, mantles, caps, awls, needles and adornments.

At last everything was ready. Godasiyo took her seat on the platform with the white dog beside her, and the two young men who had built the craft began paddling the double canoes beneath. Behind them the chief's followers and defenders launched their own canoes which contained all their belongings. This flotilla of canoes covered the shining waters as far as anyone could see up and down the river.

After they had paddled a long distance, they came to a fork in the river. Godasiyo ordered the two young canoeists to stop in the middle of the river until the others caught up with them. In a few minutes the flotilla was divided, half of the canoes on her left, the others on her right.

The chief and the people on each side of her began to discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the two forks in the river. Some wanted to go one way, some preferred the other way. The arguments grew heated with anger. Godasiyo said that she would take whichever fork her people chose, but they could agree on neither. Finally those on the right turned the prows of their canoes up the right channel, while those on the left began paddling up the left channel. And so the tribe began to separate.

When this movement started, the two young men paddling the two canoes carrying Godasiyo's float disagreed as to which fork they should take, and they fell into a violent quarrel. The canoeist on the right thrust his paddle into the water and started toward the right, and at the same time the one on the left swung his canoe toward the left. Suddenly Godasiyo's platform slipped off its supports and collapsed into the river, carrying her with it.

Hearing the loud splash, the people on both sides turned their canoes around and tried to rescue their beloved chief. But she and the white dog, the platform, and all her belongings had sunk to the bottom, and they could see nothing but fish swimming in the clear waters.

Dismayed by this tragic happening, the people of the two divisions began to try to talk to each other, but even though they shouted words back and forth, those on the right could not understand the people on the left, and those on the left could not understand the people on the right. When Godasiyo drowned in the great river her people's language had become changed. This was how it was that the Indians were divided into many tribes spreading across America, each of them speaking a different language.


Ice Man and the Messenger of Springtime

Ice Man was sitting in his birch-bark wigwam by the side of a frozen stream. His fire was almost out. He had grown very old and melancholy, and his hair was long and white. He was lonely, and day after day he heard nothing but the howling of winter storms sweeping snow across the land.

One day as his fire was dying to its last orange ember, Ice Man saw a young man approaching his wigwam. The boy's cheeks were red, his eyes shone with pleasure, and he was smiling. He walked with a light and quick step. Around his forehead was a wreath of sweet grass, and he carried a bunch of flowers in one hand.

"Come in, come in," Ice Man greeted him. "I am happy to see you. Tell me why you come here."

"I am a messenger," replied the young man.

"Ah, then I will tell you of my powers," said Ice Man. "Of the wonders I can perform. Then you shall do the same." From his medicine-bundle, the old man drew out a wonderfully carved pipe and filled it with aromatic leaves. He lighted it with one of the last coals from his dying fire, blew smoke to the four directions, and then handed the pipe to the young stranger.

After the pipe ceremony was concluded, Ice Man said: "When I blow my breath, the streams stand still and the water becomes hard and clear as crystal."

"When I breathe," replied the young man, "flowers spring up all over the land."

"When I shake my long white hair," Ice Man declared, "snow covers the earth. At my command, leaves turn brown and fall from the trees, and my breath blows them away. The water birds rise from the lakes and fly to distant lands. The animals hide themselves from my breath, and the very ground turns as hard as flint."

The young man smiled. "When I shake my hair," he said, "warm showers of soft rain fall upon the earth. The plants lift themselves with delight. My breath unlocks the frozen streams. With my voice I call back the birds, and wherever I walk in the forests their music fills the air." As he spoke, the sun rose higher in the sky and a gentle warmth came over the place. Ice Man sat silent, listening to a robin and a bluebird singing on top of his wigwam. Outside, the streams began to trickle, and the fragrance of flowers drifted on the soft spring breeze.

The young man looked at Ice Man and saw tears flooding from his eyes. As the sun warmed the wigwam, the old man became smaller and smaller, and gradually melted completely away. Nothing remained of his fire. In its place was a small white flower with a pink border, the wild portulaca. People would call it Spring Beauty because it is among the first plants to signal the end of winter and the beginning of springtime.

Deeds and Prophecies of Old Man - Blackfoot

Old Man came from the south, traveling north. As he moved along he made the mountains, plains, timber and brush, putting rivers here and there, fixing up the world as we see it today. Old Man covered the plains with grass for the animals to feed upon. He marked off certain pieces of ground, and made all kinds of roots and berries grow in the earth--wild carrots, wild turnips, service berries, bull berries, cherries, plums and rosebuds. He put trees in the ground.After Old Man made the Porcupine Hills, he took some mud and shaped it into human forms. He blew breath upon them and they became people. He made men and women, and named them Siksika, or Blackfeet. They asked him: "What are we to eat?" He replied by making more images of clay in the forms of buffalo. Then he blew breath on these and they stood up, and when he made signs to them, they started to run. "These are your food," Old Man said to the Siksika.After he had made the buffalo, Old Man went out on the plains and made the big horn, a sheep with a big head and horns. Because it was awkward and could not move fast, the big horn did not travel easily on the level prairies. And so Old Man took it by one of its horns and led it up into the mountains and turned it loose. There it skipped about among the rocks and went up high places with ease. "This is the place that suits you," Old Man said. "This is what you are fitted for, the rocks and the mountains."While he was in the mountains, Old Man made the antelope and turned it loose, but the antelope ran so fast that it fell over some steep rocks and hurt itself. He saw that this would not do, so he carried the antelope down on to the plains where he turned it loose. It ran away swiftly and gracefully, and Old Man said: "This is what you are suited for."One day Old Man decided to make a woman and a child. He went to a river-bank, took some wet clay, and molded it into human shapes. Then he covered them up with straw. The next morning he took the covering off and told the images to rise and walk, and they did so, following him down to the river. "I am Napi," he told them. "Old Man, the maker of all things."As they were standing by the river, the woman said to him: "How is it? Will we always live? Will there be no end to it?" "I have never thought of that," Old Man replied. "We will have to decide it." He picked up a buffalo chip and threw it in the river. "If the buffalo chip floats," he said, "when people die, they will come back to life again after four days. But if it sinks, when they die that will be an end to them." When he threw the chip in the river, it floated.The woman did not like the thought of dying, even for only four days. "No, we should not decide it that way," she said. She picked up a stone. "If the stone floats, we will always live," she said. "If it sinks, people will die forever." She threw the stone into the river and it sank to the bottom. "There," said the woman. "Perhaps it is better for people to die forever. Otherwise they would never feel sorry for each other and there would be no sympathy in the world.""Well," said Old Man. "You have chosen. Let it be that way. Let that be the law."Not long afterwards, the woman's child died, and she went to Old Man, pleading with him to change the law about people dying. "You first said that people who die will come back after four days," she said. "Let that be the law.""Not so," Old Man replied. "What is made law must be law. We will undo nothing that we have done. The child is dead, and it cannot be changed. People will have to die."About this time many of the Siksika people that Old Man had made came to him with complaints that they did not know how to hunt the buffalo and obtain meat.Instead, the buffalo were hunting them, they said, running after them and killing some people."I will make you a weapon that will kill these animals," Old Man promised. He went out and cut some service berry shoots and brought them in and peeled the bark off them. He then caught a bird and took some feathers from its wing. After tying these feathers to one of the service berry shoots, he broke a black flint stone into pieces and fastened a sharp flint point to one of the shoot ends and named it an arrow. Then he took a large piece of wood, shaped it, strung it, and named it a bow.While the people watched, he showed them how to use bows and arrows. "Next time you hunt buffalo," he said, "take these things with you and use them as I have instructed you. Do not run from the buffalo. When they run at you, wait until they are close enough and shoot them with arrows."After the people had learned to kill buffalo, Old Man showed them how to take the skins from them to make robes. He showed them how to set up poles and fasten the skins on them to make teepees to sleep under.One day Old Man told the Siksika that it was time for him to move on north to make more land and more people. "I have marked off this land for you," he said. "The Porcupine Hills, Cypress Mountains, and Little Rocky Mountains, down to the mouth of the Yellowstone on the Missouri, and then toward the setting sun to the head of the Yellowstone and the tops of the Rocky Mountains. There is your land, and it is full of all kinds of animals, and many things grow in this land. Let no other people come into this land, or trouble will come to you. This land is for the five tribes, the Blackfeet, Bloods, Piegans, Gros Ventres and Sarcees. If other people try to cross the line, take your bows and arrows and give them battle and keep them out. If you let them come and make camp, you will lose everything."For many moons the five tribes gave battle to all other people who tried to cross the line made by Old Man, and kept them out. But after a while some bearded men with light skins came, bringing presents. They said they wanted to stay only a little while to trap animals for their furs. The five tribes let them make camp, and as Old Man had prophesied, the tribes soon lost everything.


Kennewick Man

Kennewick Man: 7500 v. Chr. oder vor 9500 Jahren

Zahlreiche Funde werden zuf√§llig gemacht. So passierte es auch mit dem Kennewick Man. Sein Skelett wurde am Ufer des Columbia River im Bundesstaat Washington im Jahre 1996 rein zuf√§llig entdeckt. Ein Student ging am Ufer des genannten Flusses spazieren als er einen Sch√§del aus dem Sand ragen sah. Er glaubte das Opfer eines Mordes gefunden zu haben und alarmierte daraufhin den Sheriff, der das Skelett freilegen lie√ü. Der lokale Leichenbeschauer rief den Anthropologen James Chatters zu Hilfe, um das Knochengerippe anzuschauen. Dieser erkannte sofort die kaukasoiden Merkmale wie die l√§ngliche Sch√§delform und das schmale Gesichtsfeld. Der Leichnam war der eines erwachsenen Mannes von einer K√∂rpergr√∂,√üe von 1,75 Meter mit nicht indianischen Merkmalen. Der Wissenschaftler nahm eher an einen Pionier der Kolonialzeit vor sich zu haben, der entweder bei der Jagd oder beim Fischfang ums Leben gekommen war. Als er jedoch die Beckenknochen reinigte, fand er in umwucherter Knochenmasse ein Objekt. Chatter untersuchte diesen Gegenstand mit einem Computertomographen und erkannte eine abgebrochene Spitze. Die Art der Steinspitze war die eines Speeres aus der fr√ľhzeitlichen Indianer-Geschichte. Nun entnahm er dem Leichnam ein St√ľck eines Handknochens und gab es zur Radiocarbon-Untersuchung an die Universit√§t von Riverside in Kalifornien. Das Ergebnis verbl√ľffte den Wissenschafftler: Die Knochenprobe ergab ein Alter zwischen 9.600 bis 9.300 Jahren. Mehrere Anthropologen untersuchten nun das Skelett und fanden heraus, das es vom Typ zu keiner Gruppe heutiger Indianer in Zusammenhang gebracht werden kann. Der Mann hatte ein Alter von f√ľnfzig Jahren erreicht und befand sich in einem guten Gesundheitszustand. Als Nahrung hatte ihm haupts√§chlich Fisch gedient. Es konnte herausgefunden werden, dass der Mann nicht an der Verletzung gestorben war, denn der besch√§digte Knochen war mit dem Fremdk√∂rper zusammengewachsen, sondern eher aus der von der Verletzung resultierenden Infektion. Die Wissenschaftler waren auch √ľberrascht vom kaukasoiden Schnitt des Sch√§dels wie hervorstehende Nase und das nach vorne geschwungene Kinn, ebenso von der schwachen Pigmentierung der Haut, von der ausgepr√§gten K√∂rperbehaarung und von der h√§ufigen Kahlk√∂pfigkeit des Mannes. Mit all diesen Kennzeichen ordneten die Anthropologen den Mann den kaukasoiden Menschen mit indoeurop√§ischer Herkunft zu. Wahrscheinlich war der Mann europ√§ischer Abstammung. Aber wie kam er vor mehr als 9.000 Jahren auf die Great Plains in Nordamerika? Eine weitere der vier Thesen der Zuwanderung nach Amerika - neben der die Beringstra√üen-These - k√∂nnte hier eine Rolle spielen, n√§mlich die Europa-These. Genauso k√∂nnten Einwanderer au√üerhalb oder neben den Einwanderungswellen von Europa nach Amerika gelangt sein. Ihr Weg f√ľhrte √ľber den vor 16.000 Jahren zugefrorenen Nordatlantik. Die √§lteste Mumie in der Neuen Welt ist die 1940 gefundene aus dem Spirit Cave aus der Grotte des Carson City in Nevada mit einem Alter - laut der C14-Methode - von 9.415 Jahren. Dieser Mann war am Ende der letzten Eiszeit verstorben und war vom gleichen Typus - kaukasoid = langgezogener Sch√§del mit schmalem Gesicht - wie der Kennewick Man. Die √Ąhnlichkeit dieser Schmalkopfrasse ist verbl√ľffend mit dem H√∂hlenmenschen aus dem Spirit Cave und dem Kennewick Man einerseits und den Ureinwohnern Japans - den Ainu - und einer mittelalterlichen Bev√∂lkerungsgruppe in Skandinaviens andererseits. Hatte die Clovis-Kultur mit dem Kennewick Man zutun? Manche Wissenschaftler schlie√üen eine Verbindung nicht vollkommen aus. Beweise f√ľr diese These sind mehr Vermutungen. Das Skelett des Kennewick man ist fast vollkommen erhalten. Derzeit ist es aber keinem Forscher ung√§nglich. F√ľnf Indianerst√§mme, die nahe dem Columbia River beheimatet sind, haben Anspruch auf den Kennewick Man angemeldet und berufen sich dabei auf das Nagpra-Gesetz (Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act), welches vorsieht, die Gebeine der Urahnen der amerikanischen Indianer an die St√§mme zur√ľckzugeben. Daraufhin hat das in Portland stationierte Army Corps of Engineers kurzerhand das auf Staatsland gefundene Knochenskelett beschlagnahmt.


Cahokia - Die einzige prähistorische Stadt Nordamerikas

Um 1.500 v. Chr. waren im nord√∂stlichen Waldland Indianer an manchen Orten dazu √ľbergegangen ihre Toten auf H√ľgelk√§mmen bzw. -kuppen mit Grabbeigaben, wie Schmuck, Werkzeugen u. √§. zu bestatten. Vereinzelte Gruppen hatten sogar schon begonnen nach der Bestattung einen kuppelf√∂rmigen Erdh√ľgel √ľber den Gr√§bern zu errichten. Etwa 500 Jahre sp√§ter - also um 1000 v Chr. - entwickelte sich aus dieser Bestattungsmethode die Adena-Kultur. Im Ohio-Tal, New York und Neuengland breitete sich die neue Kultur aus. Die V√∂lker jagten und sammelten Wildpflanzen zwar immer noch, doch sie begannen zeitweise oder auch f√ľr immer sich in D√∂rfern niederzulassen und Wasserholunder, Sonnenblumen und Flaschenk√∂rbis zu kultivieren. Der Mais war ihnen jedoch noch unbekannt, was die Bev√∂lkerungszahl gering hielt. Sie errichteten kreisf√∂rmige Erdw√§lle und gro√üe H√ľgel. Zahlreiche Gebrauchs- und Kunstgegenst√§nde wurden aus Kupfer und Glimmer hergestellt. Als um 200 der Mais, welcher wahrscheinlich aus Mexiko oder dem S√ľdwesten kam - Einzug hielt, stieg die Bev√∂lkerungszahl sprunghaft an und es entstand eine neue Kultur - die Hopewell. Diese Kultur ist benannt wurden nach dem Namen des Besitzers des Landes, auf dem der gr√∂√üte Erdh√ľgel im Ohiotal entdeckt wurde. Die neue Kultur trat an die Stelle der Adena-Kultur. Sie breitete sich in den alten wie auch neuen b√§uerlichen Siedlungen entlang der Flu√ül√§ufe im Osten und des Mittelwestens aus. Bis 500 gab es diese Kultur, die viel bedeutender als die Adena-Kultur wurde und mehr erstaunliche Erzeugnisse hinterlie√ü. Sie errichteten gro√üe rituelle Zentren mit kegel- oder kuppelf√∂rmigen Begr√§bnish√ľgeln. Ein solcher H√ľgel war bis zu 10 Metern hoch und hatte einen Umfang von bis zu sechzig Metern. In diesen Zentren lebte die religi√∂se und politische F√ľhrungsschicht. Au√üerhalb waren die oval-f√∂rmigen Wigwams der gemeinen Bev√∂lkerung errichtet. Die Hopewell-Indianer begannen ein Handelsnetz aufzubauen. Damit konnten Produkte und Erzeugnisse aus dem Gebiet der Gro√üen Seen, von der Atlantikk√ľste wie auch aus den Rocky Mountains ... getauscht werden. Gebrauchsgegenst√§nde, zeremonielle Objekte, Werkzeuge, andere Ger√§te wie auch Schmuck wechselten somit den Besitzer. Das Gesellschaftssystem der Hopewell-Indianer war hochentwickelt. So gab es ein festes religi√∂ses System nachdem die Gesellschaft in Herrscher, die als Privilegien ihr Amt erbten, und Kasten teilte. Ferner gab es Spezialisten wie K√ľnstler, H√§ndler und Metallhandwerker. Dies machte es erforderlich die Geschicke der Gemeinschaft genau zu planen und zu lenken. Nach 500 begann die Hopewell-Kultur auf der Stelle zu treten. Es ist nicht bekannt, was geschehen war und warum. Die k√ľnstlichere Qualit√§t lie√ü nach und es wurden weniger Grabh√ľgel errichtet. Daf√ľr errichtete man jetzt gewaltige H√ľgel in Form von V√∂geln, Schlangen, anderen Tieren und von Menschen. Diese Bauwerke hatten rituelle Bedeutung. In den Flu√üt√§lern bildeten sich neue Gruppen. Ihre Kultur wechselte genau wie ihre Ideen. Aber um das Jahr 700 setzte sich eine Gruppe an die Spitze und wurde die F√ľhrungsmacht aller anderen Mississippi-Indianer. Sie bauten eine neugez√ľchtete ertragreiche Maissorte an, weshalb die Bev√∂lkerungszahl schnell zunahm. Neue gro√üe St√§dte, wie Moundsville, Etowah, Spiro und Ocmulgee entstanden zwischen dem Atlantik und Arkansas und Oklahoma. Die Erdh√ľgel in den Zentren erreichten eine noch nie gewesene Gr√∂√üe. Auf den abgeflachten Plattformen wurden Tempel und H√§user f√ľr die Herrscher und religi√∂sen F√ľhrer errichtet. Hier wurden zahlreiche Rituale und Festlichkeiten abgehalten. Wenige H√ľgel waren f√ľr Bestattungen vorgesehen. Unterschiedlichste Gegenst√§nde brachten H√§ndler aus allen Richtungen des Kontinents mit, so z. B. Gold, Silber, Glimmer, Quarzkristalle, Obsidian, Schalen von Meeresschnecken... Der Handel hatte zur Jahrtausendwende die V√∂lker des Kontinents n√§her gebracht. Zentrum dieses G√ľteraustausches und der Mississippi-Kultur war die bedeutende Stadt Cahokia - die 5 Kilometer vom Mississippi entfernt gegen√ľber der heutigen US-Stadt San Louis lag. Es war die gr√∂√üte und einzige Stadt des nordamerikanischen Kontinents zu dieser Zeit. Erst im 18. Jahrhundert gab es in den Vereinigten Staaten wieder eine Stadt - Philadelphia. - Sie war gr√∂√üer. Cahokia war siebenhundert Jahre bewohnt gewesen - von 850 bis 1150 war sie das Zentrum der Mississippi-Kultur. 13 Kilometer war das Stadtgebiet von Cahokia. Hunderte gro√üe und kleine abgeflachte Pyramiden sowie Erdh√ľgel wie auch Wohnh√§user hatte man errichtet. √úber 10.000 Menschen lebten in der Stadt und mehrere Tausend in der Umgebung. Die in der Stadt lebende Elite wurde von Bauern, J√§gern, Baumeister, H√§ndlern, K√ľnstlern und anderen Fachleuten mit Lebensmitteln und anderen G√ľtern versorgt. An der Spitze dieser Elite stand der Herrscher - die Gro√üe Sonne. Er bewohnte mit seinen Verwandten die gr√∂√üte Plattform auf dem h√∂chsten H√ľgel. Dieser H√ľgel ist unter dem Namen Monks Mound bekannt, der zehn Stockwerke besa√ü und dessen Grundfl√§che gr√∂√üer ist als jede andere Pyramide in √Ągypten oder Mexiko. Von der Monks Mound-Pyramide herrschte die Gro√üe Sonne √ľber das gesamte Volk der Mississippi-Kultur. Die Mississippi-Kultur dehnte sich aus. Dies geschah entweder friedlich oder mit Gewalt. Prunkvolle Zentren der Tempelh√ľgelbauer entstanden zwischen Texas bis Florida. Gemeinsame Rituale, Symbole und Br√§uche, wie das Reinigungsritual mit dem Schwarzen Trunk spielten eine wichtige Rolle. Als die spanischen Eroberer im 16. Jahrhundert nach Nordamerika vordrangen, war Cahokia bereits eine Geisterstadt - die Bev√∂lkerung hatte das religi√∂se Zentrum aufgegeben. Grund f√ľr die Aufgabe k√∂nnte das Problem der Ern√§hrung gewesen sein. Weiter im S√ľden existierten noch die Tempelbauer-Nationen, wie die Cherokee, Coosa, Choctaw, Chickasaw, Muskogee, Mobile, Quapaw und Timucua als die europ√§ischen Eindringlinge Nordamerika betraten. Bei diesen V√∂lkern war auch kein Anzeichen des Niedergangs erkennbar. Selbst noch im 18. Jahrhundert konnte man am unteren Mississippi auf einen erstaunlichen H√ľgelbau treffen, wo ein H√§uptling als Gott - Gro√üe Sonne - verehrt und in S√§nften getragen wurde. Dieses Volk war die Nation der Natchez. Die ¬ęGro√üe Sonne¬Ľ war der letzte Herrscher seines Volkes - die H√ľgelbauern der Natchez. Im S√ľden war der Einflu√ü der Mississippi-Kultur am st√§rksten. Im Gebiet der Gro√üen Seen und im Nordosten hatten nach der Hopewell-Kultur um 500 bis 700 zahlreiche St√§mme an Einflu√ü gewonnen, so die Irokesen.


Fr√ľhe Kulturen: Tempel Mound Builder

Die Mounds der Tempel-Mound-Erbauer in Georgia √§hneln in ihrer Art den Pyramiden der Maya und Azteken in Zentralamerika. Der Unterschied ist das Material. Die zentralamerikanischen Indianer verwendeten Steine, hingegen die nordamerikanischen Mound-Erbauer Erde. Die Tempel dienten nicht als Grabmal, sondern als religi√∂se Kultst√§tte. Wie auch in Mittelamerika f√ľhrten auch hier steile Treppen und Rampen hinauf auf das Pyramidenplateau. Die Kultur der Tempel-Mound-Erbauer breitete sich ein vom Mississippidelta nach Norden aus. Um einen gro√üen Mound herum, schlossen sich 30 bis 40 kleinere Mounds an, die riesige Versammlungspl√§tze abgrenzten. Ihre Kunst glich denen der Hopewell-Kultur, unterschied sich aber durch die Dominanz der religi√∂sen Motive. Der Totenkult und den damit verbundenen Menschenopfern spielte im Leben der Tempel-Mound-Erbauer eine besondere Rolle. Dies kommt zum Ausdruck an den Motiven, die abgehackte H√§nde und K√∂pfe zeigen und federgeschm√ľckte Priester mit Obsidianmessern in den H√§nden und Herzen aus menschlichen K√∂rpern herausrei√üen. Dieser Opferkult lie√ü wahrscheinlich die Tempel-Mound-Erbauer um 1500 nach Christi untergehen.


Fr√ľhe Kulturen: Mississippi-Kultur

Mississippi-Kultur - von 800 bis 1500 n. Chr.

Nach dem Niedergang der Hopewell-Kultur erlebte das √Ėstliche Waldland die Epoche der Neuorientierung. Um das Jahr 800 entstand die Mississippi-Kultur. Diese Kultur breitete sich bis Oklahoma im Westen und bis Wisconsin im Norden aus - sie umfa√üte den gesamten Osten der Vereinigten Staaten. Die Bezeichnung Mississippi-Kultur steht f√ľr Hunderte von Gruppen, die sich im Einzugsgebiet der √∂stlichen Waldregion angesiedelt hatten. In den gro√üen Zentren entstanden gewaltige Erdpyramiden mit abgeflachter Spitze, die als Fundamente f√ľr Heiligt√ľmer und H√§uptlingsresidenzen dienten. Zwischen 800 und 1100 n Chr. kam es in der Landwirtschaft zur Revolution. Die Bauern der Mississippi-Kultur wendeten sich von den traditionellen einheimischen Feldfr√ľchten ab und sich einer fremden eingef√ľhrten Frucht zu - dem Mais. Mit dem Anbau des Maises √§nderte sich die gesamte Lebensweise. Auch die gesellschaftlichen und politischen Strukturen wandelten sich. So entwickelte z.nbsp;B. sich im S√ľdwesten der Gro√üen Seen die Oneota, die Fort-Ancient-Gemeinschaften im mittleren Ohiotal sowie verschiedene H√§uptlingt√ľmer in den Flu√üt√§lern des S√ľdostens und im mittleren Westen. Seit der Einf√ľhrung dieser Kulturpflanze beherrschte er die V√∂lker des S√ľdwesten in ihrer Kultur. Bis der Mais im Osten die traditionellen Feldfr√ľchte abl√∂ste, vergingen etwa 600 Jahre. Man vermutet, dass eine genetische Ver√§nderung dieser Kulturpflanze diese Zeit ben√∂tigte. Ungef√§hr 1000 n. Chr. ist eine neue Maissorte im Osten aufgekommen. Diese Sorte war res?stent gegen Frost und war f√ľr besonders kurze Wachstumszeiten geeignet. Bevor die Wei√üen in Nordamerika eindrangen, hatte sich diese Neuz√ľchtung im Gebiet der Gro√üen Seen, im Ohiotal wie auch im Nordosten als vorherrschende Sorte verbreitet. Der Mais hatte sich vor 1000 n. Chr. allerdings weiter im S√ľden nur geringsch√§tzig ausgebreitet. Gr√ľnde daf√ľr k√∂nnen sein, dass man den Mais nur zu bestimmten Ritualen einsetzte oder erst vor 800 n. Chr. der Bev√∂lkerung zug√§nglich machte. Vielleicht wurde er auch im gr√ľnen Zustand verzerrt und keine Vorr√§te angelegt. Ein anderer Grund k√∂nnte mit der Kultivierung im Zusammenhang stehen. F√ľr Maispflanzungen mu√üte Boden gerodet werden, was einen h√∂heren Arbeitsaufwand darstellte, als bei den Nutzpflanzen der Hopewell-Kultur - G√§nsefu√ü und Wasserholunder. Es kann auch sein, dass der Mais erst eingef√ľhrt wurde, als die Zahl der Bev√∂lkerung zunahm. In der Landwirtschaft kannte man in der Mississippi-Kultur keine Zugtiere. Die Felder wurden in Flu√üt√§lern oder in M√§andern, die durch Deiche reguliert wurden, angelegt. Zur Feldarbeit verwendete man nur die Hacke. Die Menschen der Mississippi-Kultur besiedelten das fruchtbare Land an solchen Stellen, wo sie √ľber Landwege und Wasserstra√üen weiter entfernte Siedlungen und ihre Nachbarn erreichen konnten. Nicht die Landwirtschaft, sondern ein Wandel in der Sozialstruktur √§nderte den Charakter der Mississippi-Kultur. Das Gemeinwesen wurde straffer organisiert. Es gab einen H√§uptling und eine in mehrere St√§nde gegliederte Hierarchie. Die gesellschaftliche Distanz zwischen Adel und Volk wurde zunehmend sichtbarer. Etwa f√ľnf Prozent machten die Oberschicht der Mississippi-Kultur aus, die man an ihrer Kleidung, am kostbaren Schmuck und an ihren Wohnsitz - den k√ľnstlichen H√ľgeln, die oben abgeflacht waren, erkannte. Von ihren Wohnsitzen regierten sie das Volk und die Rituale, die den Lebensstil der Mississippi-Kultur ausmachten. Unter den Herrschern, die weitreichende √∂konomische und verwandtschaftliche Beziehungen besa√üen, entwickelten sich Allianzen, die gegeneinander konkurrierten und sich auch revalisierten. Kam es zum offenen Kampf wurden Tributleistungen und B√ľndnisverpflichtungen verlangt, aber keiner der Gegner von seinem Land verjagt. Ein besonders einflu√üreicher H√§uptling wurde als F√ľhrer von regionalen Gemeinschaften akzeptiert. Nach seinem Tod zerfiel die Allianz wieder in einzelne Ortschaften. Je mehr politische und soziale R√§nge durch den Kampf um Macht entstanden, desto h√§ufiger mu√üten Zeremonien veranstaltet werden, um die Menschen auf die gemeinsamen kulturellen Werte einzuschw√∂ren. Daraus entwickelte sich das Kultwesen des S√ľdens - auch als S√ľd√∂stlicher Zeremonialkomplex bezeichnet. In der Mississippi-Kultur entstanden Kunstwerke mit einer ungew√∂hnlichen Aussagekraft. In den Gr√§bern fand man Halsschmuck, Steinskulpturen und Keramiken, Kupfergegenst√§nde, Lochperlen sowie Becher aus gravierten Muschelschalen. Im Mai 1539 war De Soto in der Bucht von Tampa gelandet. Er hauste so im S√ľden, dass er ihn entv√∂lkerte. Die Mississipi-Kultur war in ihren gro√üen Zentren bereits auf dem Niedergang. Aber eingeschleppte Krankheiten der wei√üen Eindringlinge lie√üen es in der Mississippi-Kultur zum Chaos kommen. Durch Epidemien ging die Bev√∂lkerungszahl stark zur√ľck, so dass das politische und soziale Leben in dieser Kultur zusammenbrach. Es wurden keine neuen H√ľgel mehr angelegt und die Herrscherschicht hatte den R√ľckhalt im Volk verloren, so dass sie sich selbst √ľberlassen blieb. Die Begr√§bnisrituale wurden nicht mehr geleitet. Mit der Ankunft der Europ√§er war das aristokratische System der Mississippi-Kultur verschwunden, aber einige religi√∂se Vorstellungen wurden von den s√ľd√∂stlichen St√§mmen √ľbernommen, so z. B. das Fest des gr√ľnen Maises. Auch die Zeremonie des Schwarzen Tranks √ľberlebte. Es wurde ein aus ger√∂steten Bl√§ttern des Cassina-Strauches koffeinhaltiges Gebr√§u gekocht, welches w√§hrend einer Zeremonie getrunken wurde und den √Ąltesten einen klaren Kopf und den Kriegern Kraft und Mut geben sollte. Relikte der Mississippi-Kultur sind die gro√üen H√ľgel. Es wurden zwar keine gro√üen Pyramiden mehr gebaut, aber ihre Glaubensvorstellungen erhielten sich in der Sprache, im Brauchtum und bei den Ritualen bei den Indianern des S√ľdostens. Die religi√∂sen Orte der Mississippi-Kultur behielten ihre symbolische Bedeutung bei den Cherokee, Chickasaw, Choctaw und Muskogee. F√ľr die Verbundenheit zum Land standen die alten H√ľgel. Bei den Choctaw gilt die Plattform von Nunih Waya - im heutigen Winston County, Bundesstaat Mississippi - als die Gro√üe Mutter ihrer Sch√∂pfungsgeschichte. Die Menschen der Mississippi-Kultur wurden Fl√ľchtlinge im eigenen Land. Die √úberlebenden, die den wei√üen Eindringlingen und Sklavenj√§gern entgangen waren, schlossen sich zu Gruppen zusammen. Aus diesem Fl√ľchtlingsgruppen entstand in Georgia und Alabama eine Konf√∂deration unter der F√ľhrung der Creek. Weitere Gruppen wurden die Chickasaw, Choctaw und Seminolen. Im Bergland des westlichen North Carolina und √∂stlichen Tennessee siedelte sich die gr√∂√üte Gruppe an - die Cherokee, die etwa sechzig D√∂rfer bewohnten.


Fr√ľhe Kulturen: Hopewell-Kultur

Um 300 v. Chr. bis 400/500 n. Chr.

Nach dem Niedergang der Adena-Kultur breitete sich im gleichen Gebiet die Hopewell-Kultur aus. Sie waren keine Nachfahren der Adena-Leute, sondern sie waren viel schlanker und gr√∂√üer, besa√üen einen l√§ngeren Sch√§del und eine dunklere Hautfarbe. Sie str√∂mten aus Westen genauer aus Illinois in das Gebiet der Adena ein. Ihr Name bekamen sie von Captain Hopewell auf dessen Farm mehr als 30 Mounds gefunden wurden. In diesen Mounds wurden sensationelle Funde gemacht. Zahlreiche Fragen verbinden die Arch√§ologen mit der Besiedlung der Hopewell im Adena-Gebiet: √úberw√§ltigten die Hopewell die Adena? Vertrieben sie sie oder vermischten sie sich mit ihnen? √úbernahmen sie die Bestattungsrituale oder hatten sie ihr eigenen? - Viele Fragen, aber nur wenige Antworten. Die Kunstfertigkeiten der Adena-Kultur wurde von den Hopewell-Leuten zur Perfektion weiterentwickelt. Durch ihre Handelsbeziehungen bezogen sie Kupfererz, dass sie durch mehrt√§giges Gl√ľhen (Tempern) zum Schmelzen brachten und Kupferplatten gewannen. Diese wurden dann mit geh√§rteten Kupferh√§mmern bearbeitet und harnischartige Brust- und R√ľckenpanzerung sowie Helme hergestellt, die phantasievoll mit Tiermotiven, Perlen, Edelsteinen verziert wurden. Aber auch Pfeil- und Speerspitzen wurden aus Kupfer hergestellt. Mit ihren Kenntnissen m√ľssen die Hopewell-Indianer den benachbarten nomadischen und halbnomadischen St√§mmen weit √ľberlegen gewesen sein. Die Hopewell-Indianer brachten auch in der T√∂pferei vollendete Gegenst√§nde hervor. Sie fertigten kunstvolle Pfeifenk√∂pfe aus Stein, bearbeiteten Obsidian zu Klingen und machten aus Kupfer Broschen und Schnallen. Die Hopewell-Leute m√ľssen einen gut organisierten Handel besessen haben. Man fand die oben genannten Erzeugnisse, wie Muscheln vom atlantischen sowie pazifischen Ozean, Obsidian aus dem Westen, Haifischz√§hne vom Golf von Mexiko, Kupfer vom Oberen See sowie Z√§hne und Krallen vom Grizzly aus den Rocky Mountains. Die Hopewell-Leute schm√ľckten sich am ganzen K√∂rper - also von Kopf bis Fu√ü - Frauen wie M√§nner. Dazu verwendeten sie eben beschrieben Materialien, aber auch Alligator- und Haifischz√§hne, Z√§hne und Grallen der Grizzlies, Muscheln von der Atlantikk√ľste und Flu√üperlen als wertvollsten Schmuck. Letztgenannter Schmuck ist zu Hauf im Seip-Mound gefunden wurden. Gold und Silber war kaum in Gebrauch - daf√ľr aber das oben beschriebene Kupfer. Der best aussehende Mensch zur Hopewell-Zeit war der Krieger. Er trug einen Harnisch aus geh√§mmerten Kupfer, einen Helm - oft mit H√∂rnern und anderen Verzierungen, Ohrringe, Ketten und Armb√§nder. Zur Ausstattung geh√∂rte auch eine kunstvoll geschnitzte Pfeife in Form von Hasen, Eichh√∂rnchen, V√∂geln oder Fischen. Bei den Hopewell-Leuten hatte der Totenkult eine besondere Bedeutung. Die zahlreichen Hopewell-Mounds sind sichtbarer Beweis f√ľr den komplizierten Totenkult. Es war Privileg der f√ľhrenden Kasten eine Erdbestattung zu erhalten, welcher eine Zeremonie in einem sogenannten Totenhaus vorausging. Zahlreiche heilige Riten und Zeremonien wurden vollf√ľhrt, um die angesehensten Pers√∂nlichkeiten mit Prunk zu bestatten. Mehr als 75 Prozent der Hopewell-Indianer wurden verbrannt. Das Totenhaus wurde auf einen Platz errichtet, wo zuvor alle B√§ume und B√ľsche entfernt wurden. Die obere lockere Bodenkrume verschwand ebenfalls. Die erste Schicht, welche nun aufgetragen wurde, bestand aus festen Ton, √ľber den man ein oder mehrere Zoll Sand oder feinen Kies aufsch√ľttete. Auf dieser Unterlage wurde ein gro√ües aus Holz bestehendes Haus errichtet. Die W√§nde dieser Totenh√§user bestanden aus in einer Reihe stehenden Baumst√§mme. Zum Himmel waren diese riesigen Einfriedungen wahrscheinlich offen. √úberdachte R√§ume wurden auf der Innenseite der Hauptwand angelegt. In diesem Totenhaus wurden die Bestattungen vorgenommen. Verbrennungen wurden in rechteckigen Gruben durchgef√ľhrt. Zuvor wurde das Fleisch abgetrennt oder man lie√ü die Toten ungesch√ľtzt liegen und s√§uberte nur noch die Knochen. Die Asche und Knochenfragmente kamen in Grabkammern aus Baumst√§mmen oder wurden in der Grube belassen. In einer Nachbarkammer gab es eine Fleischbestattung. Diese Grabkammer befand sich auf einer aus Ton errichteten Plattform und bestand ebenfalls aus Holz. Hier wurde der Tote mit allen Grabbeigaben bestattet. Die Beigaben waren zeremoniell zerbrochen, um die Geistwesen freizusetzen, die den Toten in das Jenseits begleiten sollten. Die Adena- und Hopewellgr√§ber glichen sich. Der Unterschied besteht nur im gr√∂√üeren Reichtum und der besseren Qualit√§t der Grabbeigaben der Hopewell-Leute. Ein Begr√§bnis war eine unvergleichliche Zeremonie, die vom Medizinmann vollzogen wurde. Ihre Kultur mu√ü an der Schwelle einer Hochkultur gestanden haben. Die Eliteschicht der Hopewell-Indianer besa√üen eine religi√∂se und weltliche Machtf√ľlle. Bei Untersuchungen der Sch√§del aus den reichsten Hopewell-Begr√§bnisst√§tten wurde festgestellt, dass es Knochenwucherungen in den Ohrkan√§len gab. Diese Wucherungen sind genetisch bedingt und entstehen, wenn die Mitglieder einer Kaste sich innerhalb dieser Kaste fortpflanzen. Die Hopewell-Kultur ist wahrscheinlich in Illinois entstanden und hat sich nach Ohio, Indiana, Michigan, Wisconsin, Iowa und Missouri ausgebreitet. Dies geschah in den Jahrhunderten vor und nach der Geburt Christi. Das Volk wie auch die Kultur der Hopewell ging ab 400 n. Chr. allm√§hlich unter. Der Untergang kam mit den Zusammenbruch der Handelsnetze. Ihnen folgte ein weiteres Volk, welches Mounds erbaute - die Temple-Mound Builder.


Fr√ľhe Kulturen: Die Adena-Kultur

Adena: zwischen 1000 bis 300 v. Chr.

Die erste gro√üe H√ľgelbauer-Kultur entstand im Ohiotal, die sich entlang des Flusses und seiner Nebenarme entwickelte. Arch√§ologen benannten diese Kultur als Adena. Ihr Name erhielt sie durch einen Besitz bei Chillicothe im Bundesstaat Ohio, wo 1901 ein Mound untersucht wurde. Die Menschen dieser Kultur lebten in D√∂rfern mit kaum mehr als 10 Rundbauten, die einen Durchmesser von 5 bis 18 Metern aufwiesen. Die gr√∂√üeren dieser Behausungen wurden wahrscheinlich f√ľr kultische Zwecke verwendet. Die W√§nde der H√§user standen 11 Grad nach au√üen damit das Regenwasser nicht an der Hauswand ablief, bestanden aus Pfosten an denen ein Holzger√ľst befestigt √ľber das eine Lehm- oder Rindenverkleidung angebracht war. Das Dach war mit Reet oder Rinde gedeckt. In den Feuerstellen dieser Ruinen sind Nu√üschalen, Tierknochen und Essensreste gefunden wurden. Nach deren Analysierung wurde festgestellt, dass die Menschen Hirsche, Elche und Kleinwild jagten, Wildpflanzen und Beeren sammelten und Ackerbau betrieben, der K√ľrbisse und Sonnenblumen lieferte. Drei Dinge, die die Adena-Menschen praktizierten und auch weiterentwickelten, waren der Pflanzenanbau, die Herstellung von Keramik und eine organisierte Gemeinschaftsarbeit. Sie besa√üen einen Totenkult, den sie im Laufe der Zeit immer weiter entwickelten. Am Anfang waren die Gr√§ber √§rmlich. Sp√§ter - etwa ab 500 v. Chr. - wurden die Toten in flache, mit Rindenst√ľcken ausgelegte und zugedeckte Mulden gebettet √ľber die ein Erdh√ľgel angelegt wurde. Die H√ľgel der Adena-Kultur waren ausschlie√ülich Burial Mounds - also Grabh√ľgel. An den H√ľgeln erkennt man, dass bereits die Adena-Leute eine Hierarchie kannten. Anhand der Gr√§ber konnte man, die der Vornehmen und die der unbedeutenden Personen - denn diese wurden verbrannt - unterscheiden. An Skeletten der Vornehmen oder Privilegierten wurde ein besonderes Ritual vollzogen. Man legte sie in ausgestreckter K√∂rperhaltung auf den R√ľcken und streute ein rotes Farbpulver dar√ľber. Nicht eindeutig ist der Zeitpunkt wann das Pulver auf den Leichnam kam. Entweder war es nach dem man das Skelett vom Fleisch befreit oder es ungesch√ľtzt einige Zeit liegen gelassen und anschlie√üend gereinigt hatte. Um die Erdh√ľgel waren W√§lle angelegt wurden. Im 19. Jahrhundert glaubte man noch, dass es sich dabei um Befestigungen handelte, heute glaubt man zu wissen, dass sie heiligen Boden umschlossen, als Schutzmauern dienten und gleichzeitig eine Grenze darstellen, die nicht √ľbertreten werden durfte. Wie oben bereits erw√§hnt lebten die Adena-Menschen in sehr kleinen Dorfgemeinschaften. Die Adena-H√ľgel waren Familiengr√§ber. Nicht bekannt ist ob sich mehrere Generationen am Bau eines solchen H√ľgels beteiligten. In den Begr√§bnisst√§tten der Adena sind zahlreiche Kunstgegenst√§nde gefunden wurden, wie etwas mehr als ein Zentimeter dicke Stein- oder Tontafeln, in die Figuren eingeritzt sind, Kupferperlen und andere Dinge, die von einem breiten Handelsnetz zeugen. Die Bl√ľtezeit der Adena-Kultur war um 100 v. Chr. und begann aus unbekannten Gr√ľnden zu zerfallen bis sie schlie√ülich im 1. Jahrhundert n. Chr. verschwand. Woher einst die Adena-Leute gekommen waren und wohin sie aus dem Ohiotal gingen ist nicht bekannt. Nicht schlecht w√§re, wenn die Gelehrten (Arch√§ologen) sich endlich mal auf Jahreszahlen ungef√§hr festlegen k√∂nnten und es nicht so gro√üe Abweichungen g√§be.


Die Erbauer der Mounds

Von den Kulturen der vorzeitlichen Waldmenschen im Osten in den Vereinigten Staaten ist nicht sehr viel bekannt. Durch die Feuchtigkeit und die gro√üen Temperaturschwankungen in dieser Region sind die Funde stark verwittert. Pal√§o-Indianer lebten als Nomaden vor 10.000 Jahren in kleinen oder in nicht zusammenh√§ngenden Gruppen in den riesigen W√§ldern der Ostk√ľste und im Mississippital und gingen der Gro√üwildjagd nach. An diese J√§ger schlossen sich se√ühafte halbnomadische J√§ger und Sammler der Archaischen Periode bis 1.000 v. Chr. an. Ab 1.000 v. Chr. spricht man von einer Kultur, die sich bis 1.700 n. Chr. entwickelt hat und noch zur Zeit der Entdeckung existierte. Die Kultur nennt man Mound Builder. Sie hat sich wahrscheinlich im S√ľden vom Golf von Mexiko nach Norden bis Wisconsin - unterhalb der Gro√üen Seen - und vom Mississippi bis zum Atlantischen Ozean ausgebreitet. Mounds gibt es in den Vereinigten Staaten mehr als 100.000. Der Begriff ist ein Sammelwort f√ľr die Tempelpyramiden und Grabh√ľgel. Die meisten dieser Bauwerke - mehrere Zehntausend - sind allein im US-Bundesstaat Ohio zu finden. Der Ursprung des Wortes ¬ęMound¬Ľ ist nicht bekannt, das Wort mu√üte aber herhalten f√ľr ein Volk eben den Mound Builder (Builder = Erbauer). Man √ľbersetzt diesen Begriff nicht ins Deutsche. Der Begriff Mound wird f√ľr alle k√ľnstlich angelegten Erdh√ľgel der √∂stlichen USA angewendet. Diese Erdh√ľgel haben phantasievolle oder pyramiden√§hnliche Formen. Wenn man an Pyramiden denkt, fallen einen gleich die Cheops-Pyramide von Gizeh in √Ągypten ein. Mit diesen sind aber nur die Tempelpyramiden der Maya und Azteken in Zentralamerika und Mexiko vergleichbar. Die Mounds in Nordamerika bestehen auch nicht aus Stein, sondern aus Erde und Lehm. Diese Mounds brauchen sich aber nicht hinter den von √Ągypten oder aus Zentralamerika zu verstecken, da einige von ihnen √§hnliche Ausma√üe erreicht haben. Nahe Miamisburg in Ohio erhebt sich ein Mound, der aus nicht weniger als 8.816 Kubikmeter Erde besteht. In Ross County in Ohio - wo sich 500 weitere Mounds befinden - haben Indianer einen H√ľgel aus 20.000 Wagenladungen errichtet (Mounds werden im Text weiter unten namentlich erw√§hnt). Wenn man bedenkt, dass die Indianer keinen Wagen kannten und nur ihre H√§nde, K√∂rbe und Fells√§cke verwendet haben, so mu√ü ihre Leistung besonders hoch anrechnet werden. Thomas Jefferson - der sp√§tere Pr√§sident der USA - hatte die erste stratigraphische Ausgrabung (Schichtenausgrabung) 1781 an einem Mound im Bundesstaat Virginia durchgef√ľhrt. Auch W. H. Harrison - der im Jahre 1810 Tecumseh am Tippecanoe River schlug und der neunte Pr√§sident wurde - hatte lebhaftes Interesse an den Mounds. So kann man sich auch vorstellen, dass die ersten gelehrten M√§nner an den Erdh√ľgeln ihren Forscherdrang einsetzten. George Catlin - ein Rechtsanwalt, der acht Jahre lang durchs Indianerland zog und z. B. H√§uptlinge portr√§tierte - hatte diese Mounds in seinen Stichen festgehalten. Schon Hernando de Soto, der 1539 in Nordamerika landete, beschrieb die sonderbaren H√ľgel. Aber auch Grabr√§uber fanden Interesse an diesen Erdh√ľgeln. Heute sind die Mounds durch Gesetze gesch√ľtzt. Im Osten der USA gibt es auch mehrere Mounds, die dicht beieinanderliegen und durch breite Stra√üen miteinander verbunden und von runden bzw. elliptischen Stra√üen umgeben waren. Einer dieser Mound-Areale befindet sich in Newark - einer Stadt 50 Kilometer von der Hauptstadt des Bundesstaates Ohio, Columbus, in √∂stlicher Richtung entfernt. Die meisten dieser Mounds sind zwar zerst√∂rt, aber der Great Circle mit einem Durchmesser von 365 Metern, auf dem sich der Adler-Mound befindet, sind erhalten geblieben. Diese Siedlung der Vorzeit wurde von mehr als sechseinhalb Quadratkilometer Boulevards ums√§umt. Das Leben der Bewohner dieser Gro√üstadt der Vorzeit wurden vom Totenkult beherrscht, weshalb im Stadtzentrum wahrscheinlich Grab- und Tempelmounds errichtet waren. Die wohl ungew√∂hnlichste Golfanlage der USA befindet sich auf diesen pr√§historischen Mounds. Zahlreiche Farmer von Ohio leben zwischen oder auf Mounds, was f√ľr sie nichts besonderes ist. Der Great Serpent Mound (= die gro√üe Schlange) - der ber√ľhmteste Mound - in Adams County in Ohio wird der Adena-Kultur zugerechnet. Er wurde aus Erde und Lehm erbaut und besitzt eine L√§nge von ca. 382 (430?) Meter, 7 Meter Breite und eine H√∂he von 1,50 bis 2 Meter. Der Mound windet sich entlang einer Biegung des Bush Creek. Der Kopf der Schlange befindet sich am h√∂chsten Punkt, dessen Maul ge√∂ffnet ist. Man bezeichnet den Mound auch als Bilderh√ľgel. Heute geht davon aus, dass dieser lange H√ľgel das Sternbild Kleiner Wagen symbolisieren soll. Der Cahokia-Mound (auch Monk-Mound = M√∂nch-Erdtempel) in Illinois ist der gr√∂√üte Erdtempel, der 316 (330*) Meter lang, 241 (216*) Meter breit und 33 (30*) Meter hoch ist (die Cheops-Pyramide zum Vergleich ist 230 Meter lang wie breit und 146 Meter hoch). Seine Grundfl√§che ist 23.000 (18.000*) Quadratmeter gr√∂√üer als die der Cheops-Pyramide in Gizeh. In unmittelbarer N√§he des Mounds befinden sich 100 kleine Mounds und im weiteren Abstand sind nochmals 300 Mounds errichtet worden. Das gesamte Areal umfa√üt 22 Kilometer Durchmesser und besitzt eine Fl√§che 380 Quadratkilometer. Der Seip-Mound in Ross County im US-Bundesstaat Ohio ist 76 Meter lang, 46 Meter breit und besitzt eine H√∂he von 9 Metern. 99 Skelette wurden zwischen h√∂lzernen Grabkammern gefunden. Die Toten wurden mit einer Vielzahl von Flu√üperlen beigesetzt, die einen Wert von 3 bis 4 Millionen Dollar besitzen. Ferner wurden in den Gr√§bern feinste polierte Keramiken, Werkzeuge, Schmuck aus Kupfer, Silber, Glimmer und Schildpatt gefunden. Im Bundesstaat Mississippi befindet sich der Merald Mound mit einer H√∂he von 12 Metern. Auf seinem Plateau befinden sich sechs kleine Mounds. Diese Mounds enthielten Erkenntnisse √ľber ihre Erbauer. Die Indianer dieser Zeit waren bereits in der Lage, Metall (Kupfer, Silber) zu tempern. Diese Kunst hatte eine Stufe erreicht, die nie wieder erreicht wurde - selbst in Europa erlangte sie erst viele Jahrhunderte sp√§ter dieses Niveau. Nahe Miami in US-Bundesstaat Ohio erhebt sich der Miamisburg Mound mit einer H√∂he von 23 Metern. Der Grave Creek Mound befindet sich in Moundville in Virginia und erreicht eine H√∂he von 21 Metern. Das Wort ¬ęMound Builder¬Ľ wird von heutigen Arch√§ologen nicht mehr gern verwendet, da es ein solches Volk nie gegeben hat, sondern mehrere V√∂lkergruppen zu verschiedenen Zeiten diese Mounds errichtet haben. Durch wissenschaftliche Untersuchungen, die nach 1900 begannen, konnte festgestellt werden, dass die Mounds lokale Unterschiede aufweisen. Im Norden des Mississippi-Tales sind die Mounds nicht h√∂her als 10 Meter, sind bucklig und wurden ausschlie√ülich als Grabh√ľgel benutzt - werden auch als Burial Mounds bezeichnet. Im S√ľden - von St. Louis bis zum Golf von Mexiko - gleichen die Mounds eher Pyramiden. Sie sind quadratisch oder rechteckig und oben abgeflacht. Wahrscheinlich f√ľhrte eine Treppe auf die Plattform. Oben k√∂nnten Tempel errichtet gewesen sein, weshalb diese Mounds den Namen ¬ęTempel-Mounds¬Ľ erhielten. Die Mounds mit tierischen Aussehen sind arch√§ologisch schwer einzuordnen. Ein Beispiel daf√ľr ist der bereits erw√§hnte Great Serpent Mound. Weitere Formen waren Adler, B√§ren, Bisons, Elche, F√ľchse und Schildkr√∂ten wie auch Menschen, aber auch geometrische Formen gab es, wie Oktagone, Dreiecke und Vierecke - diese Erdbauwerke, gibt es einmalig auf der Welt. In ihren Ausmassen konnten sie gewaltige Dimensionen erreichen, die nur aus der Luft voll zur Geltung kommen. Sie werden in der Arch√§ologie als Effigy Mounds bezeichnet. Eine zeitliche Einordnung war f√ľr die Arch√§ologie kaum m√∂glich, da die Baumring-Datierung wegen der Wetterschwankungen √ľber Jahrhunderte hinweg versagte. Die Entwicklung der Mounds dauerte viele Jahrhunderte und wird in 4 Abschnitte eingeteilt:- Burial Mound Periode I: 1000 bis 300 v. Chr.- Burial Mound Periode II: 300 v. Chr. bis 700 v. Chr.- Tempel Mound Periode I: 700 v. Chr. bis 1200 n. Chr.- Tempel Mound Periode II: 1200 n. Chr. bis 1700 n. Chr. Die Moundsiedlungen wurden von verschiedenen V√∂lkern bewohnt, die auch unterschiedliche mystische Vorstellungen hatten. Im H√∂hepunkt ihrer Bl√ľte betrieben sie Ackerbau und Viehzucht, besch√§ftigten sich mit Handwerk und Kunst und wurden sp√§ter von primitiveren J√§ger- und Fischerv√∂lkern abgel√∂st, die die Mound-Siedlungen dem Urwald √ľberlie√üen. Zwei wesentliche Mound-Builder-Kulturen waren die Adena und Hopewell, wobei die Hopewell die h√∂here Kulturstufe erreichten. Diese vielen Erdh√ľgel im Osten Nordamerikas sind auch f√ľr die Astroarch√§ologie sehr interessant. Schon die Menschen der Adena-Kultur erbauten ab 1.000 v. Chr. die ersten dieser H√ľgel. Um etwa 300 v. Chr. soll die Adena-Kultur von der Hopewell-Kultur abgel√∂st wurden sein.Fazit: Wenn man alle nordamerikanischen Mounds ber√ľcksichtigt, so haben die Erbauer wesentlich mehr H√ľgel errichtet und einen gr√∂√üeren und organisierteren Arbeitsaufwand betrieben, als es in √Ągypten der Fall war.


Die Anasazi

Anasazi: zwischen 700 bis 1300

Der wirkliche Name der Anasazi ist nicht bekannt. Die Navaho nannten sie ¬ęAnasazi¬Ľ = ¬ęVorfahren eines anderen Volkes¬Ľ, die im 16. Jahrhundert von Norden her in das Land der Anasazi str√∂mten und ehrf√ľrchtig vor den verlassenen Monumenten standen. Von den Arch√§ologen wurde der Begriff der Navaho f√ľr diesen Kulturabschnitt der amerikanischen Indianer √ľbernommen und beinhaltet die Korbflechter-Kultur und Pueblo-Kulturen. Die Korbflechter waren halbnomadische Pflanzensammler, besa√üen keinen festen Wohnsitz und jagten Wild, mit Hilfe von Fallen und Schlingen. Um das Jahr 700 n. Chr. schufen die Anasazi eine gro√üe und zugleich r√§tselhafte Kultur. Diese Kultur beeinflu√üte ein Gebiet von 400.000 Quadratkilometer, es war eine Landschaft der Extreme. Es gab Hochebenen, die auf einer H√∂he von 2.600 m lagen, immer wieder von mehreren hundert Meter tiefen Canons durchzogen wurden und flache W√ľstenbassins. Das Gebiet lag in den heutigen US-Staaten Nevada, Utah, Colorado, Arizona und New Mexico. Das Land war trocken, nur wenige Fl√ľsse am Rand die ganzj√§hrig Wasser f√ľhrten. Im Winter fiel Schnee und im Sommer konnte die Temperatur in den N√§chten null Grad erreichen und am Tag auf 40 Grad wieder ansteigen. Zwischen 1000 und 1300 erreichte die Kultur der Anasazi ihren H√∂hepunkt. Auf einmal schw√§chelte ihre Kultur. Der Grund daf√ľr ist nicht bekannt. Man vermutet aber, das eins der drei nachfolgenden Faktoren eine wesentliche Rolle gespielt haben k√∂nnte: eine Klimaver√§nderung, die Umweltbedingungen verschlechterten sich oder auch soziale Spannungen. Die Anasazi verlie√üen die Heimat ihrer Vorfahren und gr√ľndeten im 14. und 15. Jahrhundert neue Pueblos. Aber auch die Anasazi-Kultur geriet in den Einflu√übereich der neuen aus Europa hereinstr√∂menden Kultur des wei√üen Mannes, der sie nicht gewachsen waren. Die Anasazi-Kulturen sind nach ihren Verbreitungsgebieten benannt. Die Virgin-Anasazi bewohnten ein Gebiet, was sich √ľber kleine Teile des √∂stlichen Nevada √ľber den S√ľdwesten von Utah und den Nordwesten von Arizona ausdehnte. Im S√ľdosten von Utah und S√ľdwesten von Colorado bis hinein in den Nordosten von Arizona und den Nordwesten von New Mexico erstreckte sich das Gebiet der Mesa Verde-Anasazi. Diesem Gebiet schlo√ü sich im Nordosten von Arizona das der Kayenta-Anasazi an, welche kleine Teile im S√ľden von Utah und den Nordosten von Arizona bewohnten. Im Nordwesten von New Mexico schlo√ü sich angrenzend an das Gebiet der Mesa Verde-Anasazi das Chaco-Territorium an. S√ľdlich der Kayenta- und Chaco-Anasazi dehnte sich das Wohngebiet der Little Colorado-Anasazi aus. Ihm √∂stlich bis weit nach Nordosten folgte das Territorium der Rio Grande-Anasazi.


Die Anasazi und Mesa Verde

Die Mesa Verde ist wie der Name schon sagt ein von B√§umen und Str√§uchern bewachsener Tafelberg. Sie hat eine L√§nge von 32 Kilometern und die Breite betr√§gt 24 Kilometer. Im S√ľdwesten des US-Bundesstaates Colorado erhebt sich die Mesa Verde 600 Meter √ľber die umliegende Landschaft. Die Kavernen von Mesa Verde boten den ersten Siedlern vor rund 2.000 Jahren einen guten Schutz. Die Mesa Verde wurde eigentlich erst seit 500 n. Chr. besiedelt. Es war die Zeit als man begann die anderen Pueblos und Cliff Dwellings zu errichten. Die weiter im Norden lebenden Anasazi erreichten um das Jahr 1100 den H√∂hepunkt ihrer Kultur. Nur die Virgin-Anasazi verlie√üen ihre Heimat und wanderten nach Osten. Zu dieser Zeit hatten die Anasazi die gr√∂√üte Ausdehnung ihrer Kultur erreicht. Kleine D√∂rfer wuchsen zu riesigen St√§dten heran und erreichten eine Bev√∂lkerungszahl von mehreren hundert Einwohnern. Im Montezuma-Basin, wo fruchtbarer Boden vorhanden war, wuchs die Anzahl der Personen in einer Stadt auf √ľber 1000 an. Die Anasazi lebten in der Mesa Verde erst in einzelnen D√∂rfern, bevor sie zu gr√∂√üeren und kompakteren Bauwerken √ľbergingen. Ihre Felder lagen in der N√§he ihrer D√∂rfer. Um 1200 begannen die Anasazi sich in die Canyon zur√ľckzuziehen. Sie errichteten hier ihre ber√ľhmten und imposanten Cliffh√§user. Besonders bekannt geworden sind: Cliff Palace, Spruce Tree House, Square Tower House wie auch Balcony House. Mehr als 182 solcher Cliffsiedlungen sind in der Mesa Verde gefunden wurden. Die Felder in den Mesas bestellten die Anasazi weiterhin. Die Jagdbeute, Holz, Wasser mu√üten m√ľhsam √ľber gef√§hrliche Wege, in den Felsen gehauene Stufen in ihre Siedlungen gebracht werden. Warum die Anasazi diese Strapazen auf sich nahmen, ist nicht bekannt. Aber vielleicht sind sie durch feindliche Nachbarst√§mme zu dieser Vorsichtsma√üregel gezwungen wurden. Dass die Cliffsiedlungen guten Schutz boten, ist ein Aspekt, aber im gesamten Gebiet der Mesa Verde sind keine Anzeichen von Feinden entdeckt wurden. Vielleicht gab es nomadische Pl√ľnderer vor denen die Anasazi Schutz suchten. Ein anderer Aspekt ist, dass die Anasazi untereinander Krieg f√ľhrten wegen der knappen Lebensmittel oder auch aus machtpolitischen Gr√ľnden. An den wenigen Skeletten, die man gefunden hat, sind aber keine Anzeichen von Gewalt zu entdecken. Die Organisation der Anasazi mu√ü ziemlich demokratisch gewesen sein, denn es wurden keine Pal√§ste von Herrschern gefunden. Die Grabbeigaben gaben auch keinen Aufschlu√ü in dieser Hinsicht. Die Cliff Dwellings - Klippensiedlungen - boten nicht nur Schutz vor Feinden, sondern waren auch g√ľnstiger f√ľr die widrigen Witterungsbedingungen. Im Sommer, wenn die Sonne hoch am Himmel stand, boten die unter den Felsw√§nden errichteten Geb√§ude Schatten und das Innere blieb k√ľhl. Im Winter, wenn die Sonne niedrig stand und in die Cliff Dwellings hineinschien, erw√§rmte sie die R√§ume. Diese klimatischen Vorteile m√ľssen auch die Anasazi gekannt haben, denn die H√§,user waren in S√ľds√ľdwest-Richtung optimal ausgerichtet gewesen. Dass es trotz alledem sehr kalt war und viel Holz verbrannt wurde, ist an den Rauchspuren der √ľberh√§ngenden Decken zu erkennen. Die Bev√∂lkerungszahl in der Mesa Verde wird auf 600 bis 2.500 Personen gesch√§tzt. 1906 wurde ein Teil der Mesa Verde zum National-Park erkl√§rt. Heute befindet sich in diesem Gebiet eine arch√§ologische Station mit einem sehenswerten Museum. Die Auffahrt auf die Mesa Verde entlang abgrundtiefen Canyons bis auf ein 600 Meter hohes Plateau, ist durch einen breiten Highway ersetzt wurden, was den Touristenverkehr in diesen Teil der Vereinigten Staaten einen Anstieg der Besucherzahlen bescherte.


Die Anasazi und Kayenta

Das Chaco- und Mesa Verde-Territorium wurde von gr√∂√üeren Anasazi-Gruppen besiedelt. Eine weitere gro√üe Gruppe dieser Menschen lie√ü sich in Kayenta - 200 Kilometer nord√∂stlich von Flagstaff in Arizona - nieder. Diese Gruppe begann sp√§ter mit dem Bau von Pueblos als die Menschen im Chaco und Mesa Verde. Die Kayenta-Anasazi sollen die K√ľnstler der Anasazi gewesen sein. Ihre Architektur war weniger gut entwickelt, aber was die T√∂pferei und das Kunsthandwerk betraf, waren sie un√ľbertreffliche Meister ihrer Zeit. Die Anasazi-Gruppen des Chaco und der Mesa Verde erbauten ihre gro√üen Siedlungen, w√§hrendes die Menschen der Kayenta-Gruppe zwischen 1000 und 1100 nach Westen sich ausdehnten. Ihre Expansion nach Westen endete als der Regen ausblieb. Vielleicht waren auch noch andere klimatische Bedingungen daran schuld. Um das Jahr 1150 begannen die Anasazi ihre im Westen errichteten Siedlungen zu verlassen. Die Vertriebenen wurden im Kernland der Kayenta aufgenommen, wo man die Siedlungen vergr√∂√üerte. Dies f√ľhrte zu einer Intensivierung der Landwirtschaft und zu einem stark anwachsenden Wasserbedarf. Weitere Probleme entstanden durch die Abholzung der Hochebenen. Das Holz diente als Baumaterial f√ľr ihre Wohnanlagen und zugleich als Brennstoff. Mit dem Verschwinden des Waldes kam die Erosion voran, aber die freiwerdenden Fl√§chen wurden dringend f√ľr Felder ben√∂tigt. Auch der Grundwasserspiegel sank. Der langsame Rauhbau an der Natur f√ľhrte aber nicht zur Katastrophe, sondern die sich ausdehnente lang anhaltende D√ľrre. Schlie√ülich wurde die Lage was das Trinkwasser und die Nahrung betraf, Ende des 13. Jahrhunderts so ernst, dass die Kayenta-Anasazi ihr Kernland zwischen 1286 und 1300 mit ihrer ganzen Habe verlie√üen, wie man Dank der Baumringdatierung festgestellt werden konnte. Manche Familie versperrten die T√ľr ihrer Behausung so, das man annehmen mu√ü, dass sie die stille Hoffnung hatten, einmal zur√ľckkehren zu k√∂nnen. Dies passierte aber nicht. Ihre Wohnst√§tten blieben f√ľr immer verlassen. Nicht alle Anasazi verlie√üen ihre H√§user auf einmal, sondern sie wanderten in kleinen Gruppen, Familien f√ľr Familie oder Clan f√ľr Clan. Die Kayenta-Anasazi wanderten nach S√ľden, wo sie als Vorfahren der heutigen Pueblo-St√§mme, wie den Hopi, Zuni und andere St√§mme weiterlebten.HIER EINIGE WOHNANLAGEN DER KAYENTA-ANASAZI KURZ VORGESTELLT:

(= Coombs Site). Die Kayenta-Anasazi bewohnten diesen Komplex zwischen 1050 und 1275. Die 90 Räume teilten sich etwa 200 Kayenta-Anasazi.



Ruine der Kayenta im Tsegi Canyon, die 140 R√§ume und 2 Kivas hat und unter einem 140 Meter hohen Fels√ľberhang sich befindet.


Canyon deChelly


Der Begriff ist abgeleitet von dem Navaho-Wort ¬ęTsegi¬Ľ = felsiger Canyon. Canyon de Chelly wurde von 350 bis 1300 von etwa 1.000 Anasazi bewohnt.


Inscription House


Ruine der Kayenta im Tsegi Canyon. Wie schon der Name sagt, entdeckte man hier Inschriften.


Keet Seel


Ruine der Kayenta im Tsegi Canyon, die aus 160 Räumen und 6 Kivas besteht. Keet Seel wurde nach 1260 erbaut von etwa 150 Menschen bewohnt und um 1300 wieder verlassen.


Three KivaPueblo


Eine Kayenta-Anasazi-St√§tte mit 14 R√§umen. Sie wurde um 900 erbaut und war bis 1300 bewohnt. Three Kiva Pueblo war Handelszentrum zur Mesa Verde, Hovenweep und zur Pazifikk√ľste.



Waren die Anasazi Kannibalen?

Dieser Frage k√∂nnte man gleich zwei weitere folgen lassen. Warum waren sie es ? Waren alle Anasazi Kannibalen ? 1967 (1969?) fand der Arch√§ologe Christy Turner in einer Ruine eines Pueblos im Polacca Wash in Arizona an Knochen Kratzspuren, als wenn man versucht h√§tte, dass Fleisch abzuziehen. Andere Knochen waren zertr√ľmmert, als h√§tte man sie gek√ľrzt, damit man sie in einen Kochtopf hineinbekam. Diese Spuren von Bearbeitung mit scharfkantigen Werkzeugen sind typisch f√ľr die Zubereitung von Nahrung. Schon vor dieser Entdeckung hatten Forscher die Vermutung auf Kannibalismus gehabt. Vielleicht hatte der Verzerr von Menschenfleisch eine rituelle Bedeutung ? Was die Kannibalismus-These best√§rkt, ist der Fakt, dass an den Knochen keinerlei Verwitterung oder Tierfra√ü zu finden ist. Turner - einer der Forscher, der die Menschenfresser-These st√ľtzt - hatte in 30-j√§hriger T√§tigkeit weitere Menschenknochen an 40 verschiedenen Orten auf dem Colorado-Plateau untersucht und Indizien auf menschliche Bearbeitung gefunden. Er hatte die Funde unter Fels√ľberh√§ngen, in Abfallgruben sowie aus Kivab√∂den geborgen, die er in eine Zeit zwischen 900 bis 1200 datiert hat. Diese Zeitspanne entspricht den Einflu√übereich von Chaco Canyon, wo auch Relikte gefunden wurden. Auch s√ľdlich von Mesa Verde im Mancos Canyon in Colorado wurden 1992 menschliche Knochen gefunden, die in eine Zeit aus dem 12. Jahrhundert zur√ľckdatiert werden konnten. Teilweise hatten diese Funde Hitzespuren. Rituelle Menschenopfer war der Brauch bei einigen mittelamerikanischen Hochkulturen, aber auch bei den Kariben. Um das Jahr 900 k√∂nnte eine Gruppe von Tolteken in das Anasazi-Gebiet eingefallen sein, haben die Anasazi unterworfen und ihr neues Reich von Chaco Canyon aus regiert. Arch√§ologen fanden bei einem Gro√ühaus einen Sch√§del mit angespitzten Z√§hnen, was nur in Mittelamerika Brauch war. Was die Vermutung festigen k√∂nnte, dass Menschengruppen aus Mittelamerika nach Norden gewandert sind, ist auch der Fund einer Pfeiler-Kolonnade im Great House Chetro Ketl, was sonst nur in Mesoamerika typisch war, jedoch an keinem anderen Ort im S√ľdwesten der Vereinigten Staaten. Vielleicht unterjochten die Einwanderer die heimischen Anasazi und machten sie durch den Verzerr von Menschenfleisch gef√ľgig. Um das Jahr 1130 - zu jener Zeit herrscht eine D√ľrreperiode, die Mi√üernten zur Folge hat - haben sich die Anasazi von der Herrschaft der Menschenfresser durch eine Revolte wahrscheinlich befreit und haben das Tal des Schreckens - Chaco Canyon - fluchtartig verlassen. Danach war es 800 Jahre lang menschenleer geblieben. Die Arch√§ologen, welche in Cowboy Wash - 100 Kilometer nordwestlich von Chaco Canyon - Opfer von Menschenfressern gefunden haben, glauben nicht an die Existenz von toltekischen Menschenfressern und auch nicht an eine Kontrolle durch Chaco Canyon. Nahe Cowboy Wash sind auch noch weitere Fundstellen von Kannibalismus entdeckt wurden. Arch√§ologen haben diese Relikte zwischen 1150 bis 1175 n. Chr. datiert, also eine Zeit nach der Bl√ľte von Chaco Canyon. Gegner der These von Turner bestreiten den Kannibalismus der Anasazi. Bearbeitete Knochen w√ľrde nicht gleich bedeuten, dass auch das Fleisch verspeist worden ist. Es k√∂nnte sich um bestimmte Bestattungsrituale gehandelt haben, die mit komplexen metaphysischen Vorstellungen verkn√ľpft gewesen sind. Was auch dagegen spricht, ist die Tatsache, dass keine Szene von Kannibalismus in den bildlichen Darstellungen der Anasazi gefunden wurde. Vielleicht gab es den Verzerr von Menschenfleisch aus h√∂chster Not, um eine Hungersnot abzuwenden. Was gegen diese Annahme wiederum spricht, ist die r√§umliche wie auch zeitliche Streuung der Funde. Ob die Anasazi tats√§chlich Menschenfresser - Kannibalen - gewesen sind, ist bis heute nicht eindeutig bewiesen. Um diese Frage einmal mit "JA" beantworten zu k√∂nnen, ist noch viel Zeit notwendig und vor allem bessere Funde.

Chaco Canyon und seine Außenposten

Der Chaco Canyon* liegt beinahe im Zentrum des San Juan Beckens im Osten des Colorado¬†¬†¬†¬†¬† Plateaus im US-Bundesstaat New Mexico. Er ist etwa 40 Kilometer lang, 45 bis 150 Meter tief¬†¬†¬†¬†¬† ¬†¬†¬†¬†¬† und hat eine Ausdehnung an der breitesten Stelle von etwa 600 bis 1.000 Metern. Der Chaco¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬† Canyon ist eines der trockensten Gebiete des S√ľdwestens, da nur etwa 230 Millimeter Regen¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬† im Jahresdurchschnitt f√§llt.


¬†¬†¬†¬†¬† Der sich im Chaco Canyon befindliche Fluss tr√§gt den Namen des Berges, durch dessen Tal er¬†¬†¬†¬†¬† flie√üt - Chaco River. Er f√§hrt die wenigste Zeit im Jahr Wasser und dies war auch zur Zeit¬†¬†¬†¬†¬† der Anasazi so. Aber der Chaco Canyon war f√ľr die Anasazi das Zentrum ihrer Kultur. Das¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬† Kerngebiet der Anasazi-Kultur ersteckte sich auf einer L√§nge von 15 Kilometer, in dem sich¬†¬†¬†¬†¬† 13 sogenannte Gro√üh√§user - 9 im Canyon und 4 auf der Hochebene - befinden.


¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬† Diese Gro√üh√§user wurden in der Zeit zwischen 850 bis 1130 erbaut. Sie hatten bis¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬† zu f√ľnf Stockwerke und bis zu 650 R√§ume - so der Pueblo Bonito, der auch noch eine¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬† 12.000 Quadratmeter gro√üe Fl√§che aufweist und in seiner gr√∂√üten Ausdehnung¬†¬†¬†¬†¬† 154 Meter lang ist. Pueblo Bonito ist eines der gr√∂√üten Bauwerke der historischen¬†¬†¬†¬†¬† Zeit in Nordamerika. Die anderen Gro√üh√§user sind in wenigen Jahren errichtet wurden¬†¬†¬†¬†¬† oder √ľber einen l√§ngeren Zeitraum. Manche von ihnen wurden auch immer wieder erweitert.¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬† Neben diesen 13 Gro√üpueblos sind au√üerdem auf einem Gel√§de von etwa 88¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬† Quadratkilometern mehr als 3.000 weitere, aber kleinere H√§user entstanden,¬†¬†¬†¬†¬† die bis zu 20 R√§ume besitzen. F√ľr die Anasazi war der Chaco Canyon das Zentrum ihrer¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬† Kultur, weshalb sie von hier aus ein ausgedehntes Stra√üensystem einrichteten. Es besa√ü¬†¬†¬†¬†¬† eine L√§nge von etwa 600 Kilometer - vielleicht auch mehr? Die Stra√üen hatten eine¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬† Breite von 9 Metern, die Nebenstra√üen nur 4 Meter. Sie waren zum Teil mit Steinw√§llen¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬† eingefa√üt und f√ľhrten in gerader Linie √ľber Land, T√§ler und Steinklippen.


¬†¬†¬†¬†¬† St√∂rende Steine r√§umte man weg, in Klippen wurden Treppen gehauen und aus Holz¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬† Konstruktionen f√ľr den Aufstieg befestigt. Viele der etwa 150 Au√üenposten, die bis¬†¬†¬†¬†¬† zu 200 Kilometer von Chaco entfernt lagen, konnten mit diesem Stra√üennetz erreicht werden.¬†¬†¬†¬†¬† Die Au√üenposten hatten den gleichen Baustil wie in Chaco. Die Bl√ľtezeit der Anasazi¬†¬†¬†¬†¬† begann und endete im Chaco Canyon. Wie gro√ü der Einflussbereich der Anasazi war, ist¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬† abh√§ngig von welchen Kriterien man ausgeht. Rechnet man wie weit der Einflu√ü der¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬† Architektur der Anasazi geht oder wie weit sich ihr Stra√üensystem ausdehnt, so kommt¬†¬†¬†¬†¬† man auf unterschiedliche Zahlen (350 x 200 = 70.000 Quadratkilometer oder 400 x 300 =¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬† 120.000 Quadratkilometer).


¬†¬†¬†¬†¬† Die meisten R√§ume der H√§user sind nur kurz oder gar nicht bewohnt gewesen. Vielleicht¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬† dienten die R√§ume bei Prozessionen als Unterkunft. W√§ren die meisten R√§ume der¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬† Gro√üh√§user bewohnt gewesen, so brauchte man auch viele Nahrungsmittel. Und wo kam¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬† die Nahrung her? Von den Au√üenposten? Die Stra√üen sind vielleicht auch nur zu¬†¬†¬†¬†¬† zeremoniellen Zwecken angelegt wurden und dienten als Pilgerstra√üen f√ľr wiederkehrende¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬† Rituale oder Feste. Heute geht man davon aus, dass 1.500 bis 5.000 Personen im Chaco Canyon zur¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬† gleichen Zeit gelebt haben.


¬†¬†¬†¬†¬† Vielleicht dienten die Stra√üen auch f√ľr Kommunikationszwecke. Tags√ľber eilten¬†¬†¬†¬†¬† Boten √ľber die Stra√üen, nachts gab man Rauch-, Spiegel- oder auch Feuerzeichen. Ob¬†¬†¬†¬†¬† die Stra√üen auch f√ľr den Transport von Handelsg√ľter dienten, ist nicht bekannt,¬†¬†¬†¬†¬† da die Indianer weder Wagen noch Lasttiere kannten. Der Chaco Canyon, so vermutet man, wird ein¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬† Verteilungs- und Handelszentrum gewesen sein, deshalb die vielen R√§ume, in denen vielleicht¬†¬†¬†¬†¬† Nahrungsmittel gelagert wurden und zum Einsatz kamen, wenn es zu schlechten Ernten oder¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬† Naturkatastrophen kam.


¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬† Wie das Verh√§ltnis zwischen den Gro√üh√§usern und den kleineren Pueblos war, ist nicht¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬† bekannt. Gab es eine Klassengesellschaft, Ranggruppen oder eine herrschende Elite, wie¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬† Priester? Man kann wohl davon ausgehen, wegen der zum Teil stattlichen Bestattungen.¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬† Waren diese h√∂her gestellten Personen f√ľr Zeremonien oder f√ľr die Organisation¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬† von Projekten verantwortlich, so wie die √ľbrige Bev√∂lkerung f√ľr die Nahrung, den¬†¬†¬†¬†¬† Transport oder Weiterverarbeitung der G√ľter betraut war.


¬†¬†¬†¬†¬† F√ľr den Bau der Gro√üh√§user wurden enorm viele Baumst√§mme verwendet, die anfangs¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬† aus nahe gelegenen W√§ldern kamen und als diese verschwunden waren aus weiter entfernten¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬† Waldregionen (die St√§mme wurden aus 40 bis 100 Kilometer Entfernung und einem Duchmesser¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬† von bis zu 68 Zentimeter Dicke) herangeholt werden mu√üten. Wie die St√§mme transportiert¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬† wurden sind, ist nicht bekannt, aber der Landweg oder mit dem Flu√ü sind die einzigsten zwei¬†¬†¬†¬†¬† M√∂glichkeiten. F√ľr den Bau der H√§user waren Steine verwendet wurden, die ebenfalls¬†¬†¬†¬†¬† aus gro√üen Entfernungen herbeigeschafft werden mu√üten wie auch Sand, Lehm und Wasser¬†¬†¬†¬†¬† f√ľr den M√∂rtel und den Putz.


¬†¬†¬†¬†¬† Die Gro√üh√§user mu√üten detailliert geplant wurden sein. Dies spricht f√ľr¬†¬†¬†¬†¬† die Lage der Pueblos sowie der Stra√üen. F√ľr die H√§user war eine bestimmte Lage¬†¬†¬†¬†¬† gew√§hlt wurden, die auch genaue geometrische Bedingungen erf√ľllten. Zwischen den¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬† Gro√üh√§usern herrschte Sichtkontakt. Die Anasazi orientierten sich beim Bau der¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬† Pueblos an Mauern und bestimmten Achsen der Himmelrichtungen. Dies k√∂nnten religi√∂se¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬† Gr√ľnde gewesen sein, die beim Bau der Gro√üh√§user eine wesentliche Rolle gespielt¬†¬†¬†¬†¬† haben k√∂nnten. Die Ausrichtung der Geb√§ude und Stra√üen k√∂nnte eine kosmische¬†¬†¬†¬†¬† Karte darstellen, aber ebenso k√∂nnten funktionelle Vorteile angestrebt wurden sein. Durch¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬† Erh√∂hung der hinteren Seite und entsprechender Lage der Gro√üh√§user konnte man¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬† sie im Winter bei sehr niedrigen Temperaturen als Sonnenkollektor nutzen, um so den ganzen Tag¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬† maximale W√§rme aufnehmen zu k√∂nnen. Im Sommer boten die h√∂heren Mauern Schatten¬†¬†¬†¬†¬† gegen die sengende Sonne.


      Die Kunst der Anasazi im Chaco Canyon entspricht die der anderen Anasazi-Stätten.


¬†¬†¬†¬†¬† Ob der Chaco Canyon f√ľr die Anasazi Waren- oder Verteilungszentrum oder Heimat gro√üer¬†¬†¬†¬†¬† politischer oder religi√∂ser Pers√∂nlichkeiten oder rituelles Zentrum/Pilgerst√§tte der¬†¬†¬†¬†¬† umliegenden Anasazi-D√∂rfer oder Hauptstadt eines ausgedehnten Staates und zugleich¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬† tributpflichtes Zentrum der Kolonnien oder zentraler Teil, der alle Anasazi-Zentren¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬† miteinander verband, war, ist nicht bekannt. Es gibt nur diese oder jene Mutma√üung. Uns¬†¬†¬†¬†¬† kann nur die Arch√§ologie oder eine andere Wissenschaft, die sich mit der Forschung der¬†¬†¬†¬†¬† Natur (V√∂lker) befa√üt, helfen


Fr√ľhe Kulturen: Sinagua-Kultur

Sinagua: um Christi bis 1500

Das Wort ¬ęSinagua¬Ľ wurde von Colton gepr√§gt und setzt sich aus folgenden spanischen W√∂rtern zusammen: sin = ohne; agua = Wasser, was ihre schwierigen Verh√§ltnisse ihrer Heimat und Lebensweise verdeutlicht. Die Sinagua-Kultur wurde von den Hohokam wie auch von den Anasazi ma√ügeblich beeinflu√üt. Sie entstand im Tal des Verde River im heutigen Arizona. Woher sie kamen, ist nicht bekannt. Sie lebten zun√§chst in Grubenh√§usern, sp√§ter in Erdh√§usern und auf ihren h√∂chsten Entwicklungsstand in Steinhausburgen, die sie auf Steilwandplateaus erbauten. Ihren H√∂hepunkt hatte die Kultur um 1100 als der Sunset-Vulkan ausbrach und die B√∂den mit N√§hrstoffen angereichert wurden. Die Kultur der Sinagua verschwand auch wieder durch den R√ľckgang der Fruchtbarkeit des Bodens. Von diesem Volk sind nur die imponierenden Ruinen von Tutigoot in Arizona geblieben.


Geheimnisvolle T√ľrme - Wer war das Gallina-Volk?

Mehr zuf√§llig als geplant werden im √§u√üersten Norden von New Mexico 1933 am Gallina-Flu√ü bei der Suche nach Gold viereckige T√ľrme entdeckt. Das Gebiet war nicht vermessen wurden, nur Navaho-Indianer durchstreiften das Gel√§nde. Eine Expedition untersuchte die steinernen Bauwerke. Auf einer Fl√§che von 56 mal 80 Quadratkilometern wurden auf erh√∂hten Canyon-R√§ndern mehr als 500 sogenannte Festungst√ľrme - torre√≥nes - entdeckt. Da nicht bekannt war, welches Volk diese Bauwerke einst errichtet hatte, nannte man sie nach dem Flu√ü und Canyon Gallina. F√ľr die Errichtung dieser T√ľrme, so fand man heraus, hatten mehr als eine Generation gebaut. Die T√ľrme besa√üen eine H√∂he von 7,5 bis 9 Meter, waren viereckig - wenige hatten gerundete Ecken, dass sie fast rund erschienen. Als Baumaterial wurde roh behauener Standstein verwendet, das mithilfe von Adobe-M√∂rtel zusammengef√ľgt war. Etwa 1,80 Meter dick waren die Mauern am Fu√ü des Turmes, an der Spitze hatte man die Steine so gemauert, dass sie als Brustwehr dienen konnten. In den Turm gelangte man √ľber eine Leiter aufs Dach, von dort f√ľhrte der Weg durch eine Luke zu einer weiteren Leiter, √ľber die man dann ins Innere gelangte. Die von au√üen primitiv wirkenden T√ľrme waren innen verputzt und bemalt. Motive waren Pflanzen, V√∂gel, Bl√ľten und eine Art Wimpel. Etwa 6 mal 6 Meter ma√ü die Fl√§che am Boden, der mit sorgsam eingepa√üten Steinplatten ausgelegt war. An den W√§nden waren hohle B√§nke errichtet, in die man Utensilien des Hausrates unterbrachte. In den K√§sten fand man Gebrauchs- und Schmuckgegenst√§nde. Neben einer sorgf√§ltig angelegten Feuerstelle konnte auch ein Rauchabzug in der Wand entdeckt werden, der nach oben f√ľhrte. Als man weiter grub, wurden 16 Bewohner in verschiedenen Stellungen freigelegt. Alle waren nicht eines nat√ľrlichen Todes gestorben, sondern der Feind hatte sie get√∂tet. Mit Feuerpfeilen hatte man angegriffen das Holzdach in Brand gesetzt, dabei fingen auch die h√∂lzernen Leitern Feuer. Alles st√ľrzte in das Turminnere - sogar Teile der Brustwehr. Das extrem trockene Klima, die Hitze des Feuers und der darauffallende Schutt hatte die K√∂rper so konserviert, dass sie besser erhalten waren als manche Mumie in √Ągypten. Hirschlederne Kleidung und Sandalen aus Yuccafasern, die mit Riemen um Spann und Kn√∂chel gebunden waren, trugen die Toten. Die Sohle der Schuhe hatte sogar Muster und die Hosen besa√üen Stickereien aus Stachelschweinmuster. Die Bogen waren aus Eichenholz und an den Pfeilen waren Feuersteinspitzen befestigt. Alle T√ľrme hatte das gleiche Schicksal ereilt - jeder Turm war mit Feuer zerst√∂rt wurden. In den siebzehn T√ľrmen, die man freilegte, fanden die Arch√§ologen √ľberall Menschen mit der Waffe in der Hand. Wer waren diese Menschen ? Wer hatte sie angegriffen ? Keine dieser Fragen konnte beantwortet werden. Die Baumringdatierung konnte an den verkohlten Dachbalken das Alter bestimmen. Zwischen 1143 und 1248 hatte man die B√§ume geschlagen - also vor etwa 800 Jahren, lange bevor die Spanier ins Land kamen. Bei der Untersuchung der Skelette wurde festgestellt, das es keine Pueblo-Indianer waren - die Skelette waren viel zu verschieden. Die gefundene Keramik zeigte auch keine Merkmale des S√ľdwestens. Sie pa√üte besser zu Menschen aus Nebraska oder dem Mississippital. Das Turmvolk hatte Mais angepflanzt und eine spezielle Sorte K√ľrbis. Die Untersuchungen ergaben ferner, dass das Gallina-Volk von Osten her gekommen sein mu√ü und sich hier niederlie√ü, einige hundert Jahre lebte bevor sie vernichtet wurden. Die Architektur der T√ľrme brachten sie entweder aus einer anderen Gegend mit oder es wurde hier notwendig, um sich zu verteidigen. Waren es die Navaho oder die Apachen, die als kriegerische Nomadenv√∂lker die Turmbewohner √ľberfiel ? Eher nicht, denn sie fielen erst zweihundert Jahre sp√§ter in dieses Gebiet ein. Zahlreiche Arch√§ologen erw√§hnen die Menschen, die Hibben 1933 bei seinen Untersuchungen nach dem Flu√ü oder Canyon nannte, gar nicht.

Fr√ľhe Kulturen: Fremont-Kultur

Fremont: 700/950 bis 1200/1300 n. Chr.

N√∂rdlich der Anasazi - im Osten von Utah und im √§u√üerten Nordwesten von Colorado - lebten die Fremont-Leute, deren Lebensstil √§hnlich den der Anasazi war. Ihre D√∂rfer bestanden aus verschiedenartigen Geb√§uden - auch Grubenh√§user - die wie die der Anasazi aus Stein und Lehm gebaut wurden. T√ľrme sind an Orten errichtet, die leicht zu verteidigen waren. Sie dienten wahrscheinlich wie auch andere Einrichtungen in ihrem Gebiet als Vorratsspeicher, die niedrige Eing√§nge oft unter Felsvorspr√ľngen oder auf steilen Klippen besitzen. Dies lie√ü eine Legende von einem Zwergenvolk aufkommen, die in winzigen Steinh√ľtten gelebt haben sollen. In ihrem Territorium sind zahlreiche Felsh√∂hlen und Schutzh√ľtten anzutreffen, die wahrscheinlich Wanderern als Obdacht zur Nacht dienten. Die Fremont-Leute waren J√§ger und Ackerbauern. Als Schuhe trugen sie aber statt Sandalen Mokassins aus Leder. Zahlreiche wundersch√∂ne Piktogramme hinterlie√üen die Fremonts, die Tiere, Pflanzen und Menschen mit dreckeckigen oder trapezartigen K√∂rper erkennen lassen. Sie stellten aber auch schon Keramiken mit vielf√§ltigen Formen her, die teilweise bereits Henkel besa√üen. Zwischen 1100 und 1300 gaben sie ihre Siedlungen auf und wanderten nach S√ľden oder Osten ab. Woher sie kamen, welchen Ursprung ist f√ľr die Arch√§ologen immer noch eine unbeantwortete Frage. Manche Wissenschaftler vermuteten, dass sie in ihrer Abstammung Anasazi sind. Dies ist aber wegen der zahlreichen Unterschiede beider Kulturen umstritten. Andere Gelehrten glauben oder glaubten, dass sie von der Hochebene stammen und nach S√ľden gezogen sind.


Fr√ľhe Kulturen: Mogollon-Kultur

Mogollon: zwischen 250 v. bis 1450 n. Chr.

Die Vorfahren der Mogollon-Kultur sind die Cochise. In manchen Gebieten entwickelte sich die Cochise-Kultur zu den Hohokam bzw. √ľber Korbflechter (Basket Maker) zu Pueblo. Kurz gesagt waren die Cochise die Vorfahren der Hohokam und Mogollon. Der Ausdruck ¬ęMogollon¬Ľ soll den Feldbau, Hausbau und die T√∂pferei kennzeichnen und steht als Begriff f√ľr die l√§ngste, ununterbrochene Kulturentwicklung in Nordamerika. Anfangs glaubte man, dass die Mogollon eine lokale Gruppe der Anasazi waren, sp√§ter erst stellte man sie als eigenst√§ndige Tradition dar. Warum man die Anasazi und Mogollon als eine Kulturstufe vermutete, waren die Parallelen in der Bauweise wie auch in der T√∂pferkunst. Vor 1000 hatte die Kultur der Mogollon ihren eigenen Charakter. Sie jagten weitaus mehr als die Hohokam und Anasazi. Die Kultur war nicht ganz einheitlich. Sie ist benannt nach den Mogollon-Bergen im S√ľdwesten, die an der Grenze von Arizona und New Mexico sich erstrecken. In ihrer Entwicklung in der Sp√§tphase glichen sie in der Kultur die der Anasazi. Ein Zweig der Mogollon hatte sein Zentrum am Mimbres-River, deren T√∂pferei als sogenannte Mimbres-Keramik ber√ľhmt wurde. Bei dieser Keramik handelt es sich um Objekte, die eine Schwarz-auf-Wei√ü-Bemalung aufweist. Stilisierte Darstellungen von Menschen, Tieren und Fabelwesen, aber auch symmetrische und geometrische Muster von h√∂chster Pr√§zision, wurden auf den Schalen der Mimbres-Keramik dargestellt. Zwischen dem 11. und 13. Jahrhundert lebten diese K√ľnstler am Mimbres-River. In einer Fundst√§tte in Swarts Ruins wurden etwa 635 Gef√§√üe bei Ausgrabungen freigelegt, die man den Toten mitgegeben hatte. Die T√∂pfe waren durchl√∂chert wurden, was auf die rituelle T√∂tung der Keramik bei einer Totenzeremonie hindeutet. Die Pinsel f√ľr die Bemalung der T√∂pfe wurden aus der Yuccapflanze hergestellt. Sie waren so bearbeitet worden, dass auf einer Breite von 2 Zentimetern 15 parallele Lilien untergebracht werden konnten. Diese Verzierung wurde gern von den K√ľnstlern der Mogollon-Kultur als Umrandung verwendet. H√§ufigste Darstellung waren der Bucklige Fl√∂tenspieler als Symbol f√ľr Fruchtbarkeit und Vermehrung und die als Erdmutter verehrte Spinnenfrau - als typische Gestalten in Indianersagen aus dem S√ľdwesten. Die fr√ľhesten Keramikarbeiten stammen aus dem 3. Jahrhundert, besitzen noch kein Dekor und dienten wahrscheinlich zum Kochen und als Vorratsbeh√§lter. Erst im 11. Jahrhundert entwickelten sich die Motive auf der Keramik. Die Schalen wurden verwendet bei Zeremonien und als Grabbeigabe bei Bestattungen. Als Farbe wurde ein Gemisch aus Lehm, Wasser und pulverisierten H√§matit (Mineral) verwendet. Die Farbunterschiede wurden durch Variieren der Temperatur und Sauerstoffzufuhr im Brennofen erreicht. Bis heute sind die Farben erhalten geblieben. Um 1200 waren die Siedlungen der Mogollon im Mimbres-Tal verlassen wurden. Wie von den Hohokam heute bekannt ist, so haben auch die Mogollon sogenannte Ritzzeichnungen in Felsw√§nden hinterlassen. Der Jornada-Mogollon-Stil brachte konzentrische Kreise um geometrische Muster hervor, die vermutlich rituelle Bedeutung hatten. Nahe dem Three River in New Mexico wurde bei einer vermutlich kultischen Versammlungsst√§tte geritzte Darstellungen der Mogollon entdeckt, die zwischen 1000 und 1400 entstanden sein sollen. Die Mogollon-Leute lebten bis zum 11. Jahrhundert in Grubenh√§usern, erst dann wohnten sie in mehrst√∂ckigen oberirdischen Geb√§uden. Ihre D√∂rfer waren teils in den Bergen aber auch entlang der Fl√ľsse errichtet. Auch sie besa√üen Kivas, die allerdings nicht rund wie die der Anasazi waren, sondern meist rechteckig. Ihre Hauptnahrungsquelle war Wild, dazu kamen noch Mais, Bohnen, Gem√ľsek√ľrbis, N√ľsse und Samen. Aus Baumwolle webte man Kleidung und Decken. Wie bei Ausgrabungen entdeckt wurde, benutzten die Mogollon-Menschen bereits Festgew√§nder, die aus Fell und Federn angefertigt waren. Sie kannten bereits Rohrfl√∂ten und rauchten Tabak aus rohrf√∂rmigen Pfeifen. Eine Art W√ľrfelspiel wurde auch gespielt. In wildarmen Gebieten litten die Mogollon unter Mangelerscheinungen, wie an Skeletten festgestellt wurde. Das Gemeinwesen der Mogollon-Menschen l√§√üt noch keine Rangordnung erkennen. Auch waren die Behausungen gleich gro√ü und hatten keine Ausstattungsunterschiede. Die Mogollon kannten bereits Sodalit√§ten - also Gemeinschaften, die durch besondere Symbole zum Ausdruck gebracht wurden. Dies konnte an Skeletten einer Fundst√§tte auf dem Grasshopper Plateau im Osten von Arizona festgestellt werden. Die Menschen der Mogollon-Kultur hatten bereits Kontakt mit den Anasazi. Ihre eigenst√§ndige Kultur ging zwischen 1200 und 1450 unter, aber die Volksgruppen bestanden weiterhin. Die Nachfolger der Mogollon-Kultur sollen die Anasazi gewesen sein.


Fr√ľhe Kulturen: Hohokam-Kultur

Hohokam: 300 v. Chr. bis 1500 n. Chr.

Die Hohokam-Kultur entstand im S√ľden Arizonas. Sie ist wahrscheinlich aus der pr√§historischen Cochise-Kultur hervorgegangen. Ihr Name ist ein Wort aus der Pima-Sprache und bedeutet ¬ęDie, die spurlos verschwanden¬Ľ. Weiter unten in diesem Thema werden Sie erkennen, dass diese Bezeichnung nicht gerechtfertigt ist. Wie Sie in der Tabelle (√úbersicht) der Fr√ľhen Kulturen entnehmen k√∂nnen, durchliefen die Hohokam mehrere Stufen ihrer Entwicklung - bis sieben kulturelle Phasen werden heute unterschieden. Bis etwa um 300 v. Chr. sind die ersten Spuren ihrer Kultur im heutigen US-Bundesstaat Arizona zur√ľckzuverfolgen. Sie lebten zu dieser Zeit in einfachen in die Erde versenkte H√§user - dem sogenannten Erdgrubenhaus. Diesen Baustil haben sie von der Cochise-Kultur √ľbernommen. In der als Pionierzeit bezeichneten Phase ihrer Entwicklung wurden diese Behausungen denen der Mogollon immer √§hnlicher, die ihre √∂stlichen Nachbarn waren. Die St√ľtzpf√§hle der Bauten wurden mit Astwerk verflochten √ľber das ein Lehmputz - der als Adobe bezeichnet wird - als Abdichtung zum Einsatz kam. Snaketown - (in Pima-Sprache: Skoaquik, deutsch: Schlangenstadt) die gr√∂√üte Siedlung, die die Hohokam jemals erbauten - bestand nur aus diesem Haus-Typus. Als die Hohokam um 1100 den Baustil der Anasazi - Pueblos √§hnliche Bauten - √ľbernahmen, behielten sie ihre Bauweise mit Lehmverkleidung allerdings bei. Die neue Technik entstand wahrscheinlich durch Kontakte beim Tauschhandel mit den Anasazi und Mogollon. Durch diese Beziehungen ist auch der Anbau fremder Feldfr√ľchte ebenso die Bew√§sserung wie auch die Herstellung von Keramik und die Flechtkunst entstanden. Snaketown im s√ľdlichen Arizona - 45 Kilometer s√ľdlich von Phoenix, der Hauptstadt des erw√§hnten Bundesstaates entfernt - war wahrscheinlich der Mittelpunkt der Hohokam-Kultur. Sie liegt am Gila River. Wie ihr Name schon sagt, ist sie die Stadt der Schlangen - da es in ihrer Umgebung von Klapperschlangen wimmelte. In ihren Ausma√üen mi√üt das Areal von Snaketown mehr als ein Quadratkilometer. 207 Hausruinen sind bei zwei Ausgrabungen freigelegt worden. Von 300 v. Chr. bis 1100 n. Chr. wuchs die Bev√∂lkerung von etwa 100 Personen bis auf 2.000 an. Zwischen den H√§usern wurden H√ľgel entdeckt. Die meisten davon waren Abfallhaufen, die von den Frauen angelegt worden sind. Die Mehrzahl der pr√§historischen V√∂lker hatten ihren Unrat jedoch einfach vor der T√ľr entsorgt. Gr√∂√üere H√ľgel waren mit √úberlegung angelegt wurden. Der h√∂chste Mound von ihnen, der eine Plattform erhalten hatte und 15 Meter im Durchmesser ist, war Nr. 29, in dem bei Ausgrabungen die sieben kulturellen Phasen der Hohokam eindeutig identifiziert werden konnten. Der Bau dieser Mounds beweist den Einflu√ü aus Mexiko. Ein weiteres Zeichen, der dies best√§tigt, sind die entdeckten Ballspielpl√§tze. Das Ballspiel war einst der Nationalsport in Mexiko. Mehr als 200 Ballspielpl√§tze sind in den Siedlungen der Hohokam gefunden wurden. In Snaketown besitzt einer eine L√§nge von 55 Metern und 19 Meter Breite. An den L√§ngsseiten war die Erde zu einem Wall aufgesch√ľttet, die Mitte, die obere wie auch untere Feldbegrenzung war mit drei Steinen markiert worden. Zum Spiel verwendete man einen 10 Zentimeter gro√üen Vollgummiball, der aus dem kautschukhaltigen Milchsaft des mexikanischen Gummibaums (Castilla elastica) und aus einem Extrakt des Morning Glory-Weins (Ipomoea alba) hergestellt wurde. Beide Substanzen wurden vermischt und eine bestimmte Zeit ger√ľhrt. Danach formte man den Spielball. Die gefundenen T√∂pferwaren beweisen, dass diese Menschen mit Kulturen aus dem Norden wie auch aus dem S√ľden Handel getrieben haben. Wie Seemuscheln beweisen, so m√ľssen auch Handelsbeziehungen an die K√ľste vorhanden gewesen sein. Auf den Muscheln waren Verzierungen von solcher Feinheit ausgef√ľhrt wurden, dass man kaum glauben kann, wie dies vollbracht wurden ist. Geometrische Figuren, Schlangen und Schildkr√∂ten, aber auch Ornamente waren nicht aufgemalt, sondern geritzt wurden - es siehst sogar aus wie ge√§zt. Arch√§ologen fanden die L√∂sung, wie die Indianer die Figuren auf die Muscheln aufgebracht haben. Mit Harz oder Erdpech wurde die Zeichnung auf die Muschelschale gemalt. Als √Ąztmittel diente der Saft aus der Saguarokaktus-Bl√ľte, der die unbemalten Stellen √§zte. Im Anschlu√ü wurde durch Abkratzen des Harzes das Muster freigelegt. 900 n. Chr. wurde diese Technik von den Hohokam bereits benutzt - in Europa kam dieses Verfahren erst ein halbes Jahrtausend sp√§ter zur Anwendung. Das heute hier gelegene ausged√∂rrte und karge Land war einst durch Bew√§sserungsgr√§ben in eine bl√ľhende Landschaft von den Hohokam verwandelt worden. Sie hatten damit das gr√∂√üte vorgeschichtliche Bew√§sserungssystem n√∂rdlich von Mexiko gebaut. Ihre kilometerlangen Kan√§le wurden von mehreren Generationen errichtet, die f√ľr den Bau ihre H√§nde, einfache Holz- und Steinwerkzeuge verwendeten. Bei Phoenix erreichten die Kan√§le eine L√§nge von 650 Kilometern. Die Gr√§ben waren bis zwei Meter tief und 1,5 bis 3 Meter breit, damit nicht zu viel Wasser durch Sonneneinstrahlung verdunsten konnte. Untersuchungen ergaben, dass diese Bew√§sserung schon vor Christi Geburt angelegt wurde. Durch die geregelte Wasserzufuhr war es m√∂glich, zweimal im Jahr eine Ernte einzubringen. Sie bauten Mais, zahlreiche Bohnensorten, K√ľrbis, Baumwolle und Tabak an. Ihre Maissorte war h√∂her kultiviert als die der Pueblos, hatte gr√∂√üere Kolben und weniger Ausschu√ü. Wild und Kaninchen erg√§nzten die Nahrung. In der Herstellung von Keramik zeigten die Hohokam gro√üe Kunstfertigkeit. Die Formen waren vielf√§ltig, die als Muster Ornamente besa√üen, die zweifarbig - rote Bemalung auf lederfarbenen Grund - ausgef√ľhrt waren. Die Menschen der Hohokam-Kultur kannten bereits Schminkt√§felchen, die aber nicht die Frauen, sondern die M√§nner f√ľr ihre religi√∂sen T√§nze verwendeten. Auch bei der Anfertigung von Waffen, Werkzeugen und Hausger√§ten besa√üen sie einen h√∂heren Entwicklungsstand als die Pueblos. Als Schmuck fertigten die Hohokam Ringe, Armreifen, Anh√§nger, Haarnadeln, Schmuck aus T√ľrkis aber auch Wangen- und Lippenstecker an. Zeugnisse der Hohokam sind auch Felsmalereien und Ritzzeichnungen an Canyonw√§nden und Steinbl√∂cken, die mit Steinwerkzeugen geschaffen wurden. Fig√ľrliche und andere Darstellungen werden kultische Bedeutung besitzen, die mit bestimmten Ritualen in Zusammenhang stehen. Obwohl sich die Anasazi, Mogollon und Hohokam in ihrer Kultur beeinflu√üten, k√∂nnen heute die Arch√§ologen bestimmte k√ľnstlerische Ausdrucksweisen der verschiedenen Gruppen unterscheiden. Die Menschen der Hohokam lebten in kleinen D√∂rfern zusammen und waren wahrscheinlich in Clans organisiert, denen vermutlich ein H√§uptling oder Schamane vorstand. Bereits die Hohokam kannten h√∂her gestellte Pers√∂nlichkeiten. Dies wird am Totenkult deutlich, da die h√∂her gestellten Verstorbenen mit Muschelschmuck und anderen Kostbarkeiten, wie Armb√§ndern und Mineraliensammlungen beerdigt wurden. Die anderen Toten wurden verbrannt und ihre Asche verstreut, weshalb man heute nicht wei√ü, wie sie einst ausgesehen haben. Die Verbrennung der Toten war sonst im S√ľdwesten nicht √ľblich. Weshalb von diesem Volk nicht viel gefunden wird, liegt auch daran, dass sie ihre wertvollsten Keramikgegenst√§nde zerbrachen, was bis heute den Arch√§ologen ein R√§tsel aufgibt. Bemerkenswerte Bauwerke sind auch kaum zu finden. Zum Ende ihrer Kultur entstanden in manchen Ortschaften, vor allem in denen, wo wichtige Wasserkan√§le vorbeif√ľhrten, Plattformh√ľgel, die als Zeremonialst√§tten oder f√ľr die Elite verwendet wurden. In der letzten Phase der Hohokam-Kultur sind anscheinend verschiedene Kulturen miteinander verschmolzen. Den kulturellen H√∂hepunkt erreichten die Hohokam um das Jahr 1300. Zu dieser Zeit war Snaketown bereits 200 Jahre lang eine tote Stadt. An anderen Stellen im selben Tal wurden kleine Siedlungen erbaut. Ihre Bew√§sserung verwendeten sie weiterhin. W√§hrend des 14. Jahrhunderts wanderten aus dem Norden und aus dem Osten andere St√§mme in ihr Gebiet. Diese Invasion war genauso friedlich von statten gegangen, wie die Hohokam selbst mehr als 1.000 Jahre gelebt hatten. Die neue Kultur war die der Anasazi. Arch√§ologen nennen die eingestr√∂mten Menschen ¬ęSalado-Volk¬Ľ. Zu der Zeit als sich dieser Wandel vollzog, entstand das vierst√∂ckige Adobe-Haus, das man heute Casa Grande nennt. Nicht die gro√üe D√ľrreperiode zwischen 1276 und 1299, auch nicht der Einfall athapaskischer V√∂lker - wie die Vorfahren der Navaho und Apachen, ebenso wenig die Verbreitung von Seuchen aus Mexiko her - es wurden keine Massengr√§ber gefunden - sind an der Abwanderung der V√∂lker des S√ľdwestens schuld, sondern die Zunahme der Bev√∂lkerung - also die Bev√∂lkerungsdichte. Diese k√∂nnte zum Zeitpunkt ihrer Bl√ľte zwischen 15.000 und 30.000 Personen gelegen haben. Durch das F√§llen der B√§ume √§nderte sich erst das Einzugsgebiet der Fl√ľsse bis es zerst√∂rt wurde. Dies wiederum vernichtete die Felder. Der Bev√∂lkerungszuwachs und der geringere Niederschlag zwang die Menschen in andere Lebensr√§ume auszuweichen. So verlie√ü Familie f√ľr Familie ihre Heimat. - Durch die Bev√∂lkerungsdichte kam es zum √∂kologischen Exodus. Die Hohokam waren die letzten im S√ľdwesten, die ihren Kulturraum verschlie√üen Den Hohokam folgten unerm√ľdliche Bauern, die das Bew√§sserungssystem ihrer Vorfahren f√ľr ihre Felder √ľbernahmen. Wir kennen sie heute unter den Namen Pima und Papago


Fr√ľhe Kulturen: Folsom-Kultur

Folsom: zwischen 9.000 und 8.000 v. Chr.

Die Indianer der Folsom-Kultur waren Gro√üwildj√§ger in den Great Plains und anderen Gebieten Nordamerikas. Die Kultur ist nach dem Ort Folsom, New Mexico, benannt wurden bei dem der Arch√§ologe Figgins (Direktor des Colorado Museum of National History in Denver) von 1926 bis 1928 Skelette einer fr√ľhen Bisonart und zahlreiche Steinwerkzeuge freilegte. Ein schwarzer Cowboy mit Namen George McJunkin verfolgte die Spur eines verlorenen Rindes, bei der er die Knochen gefunden hatte. Diese Knochen untersuchte Figgins und konnte sie √§lter als 10.000 Jahre identifizieren. Die Knochen stammen vom Bison taylori (oder wie die Biologen ihn nennen Bison antiquus). Zwei abgebrochene Feuersteinspitzen fand Figgins bei der systematischen Freilegung von 1926 in der selben Schicht der Bisonknochen. Fachleute akzeptierten diesen Fund nicht, da sie der Meinung waren, dass die Knochen und Speerspitzen zuf√§llig in die gleiche Schicht gekommen seien. Das Colorado Museum of National History beauftragte Figgins nochmals zu graben. Diesmal fand er erneut Speerspitzen und Knochen in der gleichen Schicht. Er lie√ü alles unber√ľhrt (lat.: in situ) liegen und rief seine Kollegen herbei. Dr. Brown vom American Museum of National History legte eine Spitze, die zwischen zwei Knochen eines Tierskeletts steckte, frei - die fortan als Folsom-Spitze in die Geschichte einging. Es war zweifellos der Beweis der Behauptung von Figgins. Bei Grabungen im Jahre 1928 durch Brown wurden weitere Folsom-Points gefunden, so dass eine Zahl von 19 Spitzen zusammenkam. Dieser Fund - die Folsom-Spitze - n√§herte den Stolz Amerikas auf seine Vergangenheit. Bei Folsom wurde aber kein einziger Menschenknochen gefunden. Bei den Speerspitzen konnte es sich jedoch nicht um Pfeilspitzen handeln. F√ľr Pfeile war die Spitze zu gro√ü. Pfeil und Bogen wurde auch erst von den Basket Maker im S√ľdwesten eingef√ľhrt. Ein weiterer Beweis, dass hier Menschen der Spezie Homo sapiens den Bison erlegt hatten, ist das Fehlen des Schwanzwirbels, was nur zu Erkl√§ren ist, dass das Tier geh√§utet wurde. Bei dem Bisonskelett wurden Schaber - Werkzeug zum Reinigen von Fell - gefunden. Das Fell diente wahrscheinlich als Kleidung, Windschutz oder Unterlage zugleich. Merkw√ľrdiger Weise waren die Skelette fast vollst√§ndig erhalten, was darauf schlie√üen l√§√üt, dass sie an Ort und Stelle verzerrt wurden. Dies wirft f√ľr die Arch√§ologen zahlreiche Fragen auf. Einige der wichtigsten sind: Hatten die Folsom-Leute kein festes Lager? Wieso kam kein einziger J√§ger ums Leben? Mit nichts als Speeren gegen einen Bison vorzugehen, brachte doch Gefahr. Wo die ersten Knochen gefunden wurden, sind dunkle Humusstreifen vorhanden. Dies weist daraufhin, dass hier einst saftiges Gras gewachsen ist, vielleicht ein kleiner See lag, zu dem die Bisons zur Tr√§nke kamen. 1928 wurden die Knochen auf 10.000 Jahre gesch√§tzt. Eine Radio-Karbon-Methode gab es noch nicht. Auch an anderen Stellen der heutigen USA fand man Speerspitzen der Folsom-Leute. So wurden schon 1924 bei Fort Collins im heutigen US-Staat Colorado auf einem Jagdlagerplatz Speerspitzen, Schaber und Steinmesserklingen dieser fr√ľhen J√§ger sowie √úberreste des ausgestorbenen Bisons (Bison taylori) gefunden. Die Grabungsst√§tte ¬ęLindenmeier Site¬Ľ in Colorado brachte ziemlich genaue Ergebnisse der Altersangabe - n√§mlich 10850 ¬Ī 550 Jahre.


Fr√ľhe Kulturen: Goshen-Kultur

Goshen: etwa 11000 v. Chr.

Bei Ausgrabungen im Mill Iron entdeckte man in den achtziger Jahren des 20. Jahrhunderts Projektilspitzen und Werkzeuge in einer Schicht, die durch Erosion freigelegt worden war, die der untersten Schicht von Hell Gap entsprach. Diese Relikte hatten den Namen Goshen erhalten, die keineswegs der Clovis- oder Folsom-Kultur nahestand. Eine Untersuchung mit der Radiocarbon-Datierung erbrachte ein Alter von 11.000 Jahren. Hell Gap ist auch eine pal√§oindianische Fundst√§tte, in der Relikte des Goshen-Komplexes (Kultureller Komplex ist eine abgegrenzte Gruppe kultureller Gegenst√§nde, die miteinander in Zusammenhang stehen und von einer einzigen Bev√∂lkerung benutzt wurden.) gefunden wurden. Da in Mill Iron nur zwei Mammutknochen gefunden wurden, einer von ihnen diente den Pal√§o-Indianern als Werkzeug, geht man davon aus, dass die Tiere bereits ausgestorben waren. In einem Bisonlager nahe Mill Iron fand man Knochen, die mindestens 31 verschiedenen Tieren zuordnen werden konnten und dass sie im Winter oder am Ende dieser Jahreszeit den J√§gern zur Beute wurden. Nicht genau entr√§tselt werden konnte, ob die Bisons alle bei einer Jagd erlegt worden waren und welche Waffen dazu Verwendung fanden - Die hohe Erosion dieser Gegend lie√ü keine genaueren Fakten zu. Unterhalb einer Folsom-Schicht in der Fundst√§tte von Carter/Kerr-McGee am Powder River im Norden von Wyoming fanden Arch√§ologen eine Projektilspitze aus der Goshen-Zeit. Damit konnte der Beweis erbracht werden, dass die Goshen- vor dem Folsom-Leuten gelebt haben m√ľssen. Diese Fundst√§tte, so konnte anhand ihrer Lage festgestellt werden, mu√ü als Tierfalle gedient haben. In der Goshen-Schicht sind schwere Bruchst√ľcke von R√∂hrenknochen sicher gestellt worden und der Mittelfu√üknochen eines Kamels aus dem Pleistoz√§n. Anfangs hatte man die Goshen-Schicht den Clovis zugesprochen, aber weitere Untersuchungen ergaben eindeutig die Zugeh√∂rigkeit der Schicht zu dem Goshen-Typus. Die Projektil-Spitzen der Folsom und der Goshen sind sehr √§hnlich. Jedoch weisen die Goshen-Spitzen keine Kehlung auf, sie sind stattdessen in mehrere eingesenkte Stellen von der Mitte - Basis - aus unterteilt. Grund f√ľr diese Bearbeitung k√∂nnte die Erreichung einer besseren Spitzenhaftung gewesen sein. Nahe dem Quellgebiet des Colorado River sind in einem kleine Becken der Rocky Mountains - das als Middle Park bekannt ist - mehrere Folsom- und Goshen-Schichten entdeckt worden. In einem 2.620 Meter √ľber dem Meeresspiegel gelegenen Jagdlager, an dem man mindestens 13 Bisons erlegte, wurden von Arch√§ologen Pfeilspitzen der Goshen-Kultur entdeckt. Nicht weit von dieser Fundst√§tte wurden Folsom- und Goshen-Gegenst√§nde nebeneinander entdeckt. Dieses Jagdlager beweist damit eindeutig, dass bereits B√ľffel im sp√§ten Pleistoz√§n und im fr√ľhen Holoz√§n diese H√∂henlage aufsuchten. Ein gr√∂√üerer Wildpfad erreichte den Kamm dieses H√ľgels. Die Pal√§o-J√§ger k√∂nnten auch den steilen Anstieg als sich die Tiere dicht aneinanderdr√§ngten bevor sie bergan stiegen als Jagdareal benutzt haben. Die Werkzeuge der Goshen-Kultur sind sowohl dem Folsom- wie auch dem Clovis-Typ √§hnlich. Wenn man nun alle diese Indizien vergleicht in Bezug der Stratigraphie (Schichtenkunde) und der Jagdstrategie, so mu√ü man davon ausgehen, dass die Goshen-Kultur der direkte Vorl√§ufer der Folsom-Kultur war. Die Menschen der Clovis-Kultur erreichten zuerst den amerikanischen Kontinent. Ihnen folgten nur wenig sp√§ter die Kulturen von Goshen und von Folsom.